chapter 7&8

what transports oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs?
red blood cells
what enzyme does semen contain?
enzyme p30
what microscope is an instrument that links a microscope to a spectrophotometer?
microspectrophotometer
what microscope bombards a specimen with a beam of electrons to produce a magnified image?
scanning electron microscope
the clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody
agglutination
what is light that illuminates the specimen from above to examine opaque specimens
vertical illumination
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what is the eyepiece magnification is most forensic work?
10x
what microscope is two monocular compound microscopes spaced and aligned to present a 3D image?
stereoscopic microscope
color test for hemoglobin with phenolphthalein to produce a deep pink
kastle-meyer
antibodies and antigens diffuse towards one another on a gel plate
gel diffusion
what is best used for forensic microscopy requiring a side-by-side comparison
comparison microscope
what was the earliest and simplest microscope
magnifying glass
common blood test until identified as a carcinogen
benzidine
an antibody that reacts with its corresponding antigen to form a precipitate
precipitin
addition of chemicals to blood to form crystals containing hemoglobin derivatives
microcrystalline test
what is light that passes up from the condenser and through the specimen
transmitted illumination
what microscope is two compound microscopes combined into one unit
comparison microscope
how many antigens determines an individual’s blood type in the A-B-O SYSTEM
2
which microscope is more likely to be used as a tool for determining whether a suspect has recently fired a gun
scanning electron microscope
sensitive chemical test presumptively detects bloodstains diluted up to 300,000x
luminol
in which phenotype pairing can the the genotypes of the individuals be directly known
type AB and type O
which microscope plots an absorption spectrum of the item under examination
microspectrophotometer
what microscope is used to study birefringent materials, that have double refraction
polarizing light microscope
what are present in all human blood that allows us to give blood types?
A-B-O antigens
what is the most frequently used and versatile microscope found in the crime laboratory?
stereoscopic microscope
when the SEM’s primary electron beam bombards a specimen, it causes the emission of what 2 things?
1) electrons from elements of the upper layer of the specimen and 2) x-rays from the target
a comparison microscope designed to examine bullets and fibers is equipped with what kind of illumination?
vertical illumination
what is the advantage of monoclonal antibodies?
an animal can produce antibodies that don’t vary in composition over time
a gene pair made up of 2 similar alleles is said to be…
homozygous
for how long can recent sexual activity be calculated using the semen marker p30
up to 24 hours
what altered the approach forensic scientists have taken toward the individualization of bloodstains and other biological evidence?
DNA
the polarizer and analyzer in a polarizing microscope are normally set…
parallel to each other
in the design of a polarizing microscope, the polarizer is placed between the…
light source and sample stage
in order to examine an opaque object with a compound microscope, one must use what kind of light?
vertical illumination
what microscope can a forensic analyst now view a particle while, at the same time, a beam of light is directed at the particle in order to obtain its absorption spectrum
microspectrophotometer
for every antigen, there exists a specific what?
antibody
when using a compound microscope, the areas above and below the depth of focus are best viewed by adjusting what?
the fine or coarse adjustment
what can palynology do?
narrow location based on pollen
which microscope provides a right-side-up image?
stereoscopic microscope
which blood components are directly pertinent to the forensic aspects of blood identification>
blood serum and red blood cells
what instrument can be used to view a single fiber found at a crime scene and identify its generic class?
infrared microspectrophotometer, stereoscopic microscope, and polarizing microscope
which microscope has the largest potential working distance?
stereoscopic microscope
what is the D antigen also known as?
Rh
which microscope is best suited to the study of birefringent minerals and fibers?
polarizing microscope
a microscope with which light source, when linked to a spectrophotometer, will provide a “fingerprint” spectrum of the object being viewed?
infrared
the microscope that provides the highest resolution and greatest depth of focus is the…
scanning electron microscope
all blood contain the what enzyme?
peroxidase
what is one of the major attractions of the scanning electron microscope image?
high magnification, high resolution, and great depth of focus
if crystals of unknown origin are view under a polarizing microscope and appear dark, what can be concluded about the crystals?
they are non-polarizing
evidence to substantiate that a rape occurred could include…
hairs, fibers, blood, semen, and physical injuries
the image produced by an SEM is initially displayed on…
a cathode ray tube
what type of crystals produce two planes of polarized light, each perpendicular to the other
birefringent
type AB blood contains
both A and B antigens and neither antibodies
what is palynology
study of pollen and spores based on characteristics
a transparent specimen is viewed through a microscope using what type of light?
transmitted illumination
in routine blood banking, which antigens must be determined in testing for compatibility
A-B-O and Rh factors
what type of microscopy most commonly used with palynology is…
scanning electron microscope
how many parts is the mechanical system of a microscope is composed of?
6
to determine whether a bloodstain is of human or animal origin, the serologist will perform…
precipitin test
the condenser of a compound microscope is located…
beneath the stage
what type of image cannot be viewed directly
virtual image
monoclonal antibodies…
are produced by injecting a mouse with an antigen creating hybridomas, creating a limitless supply and it called a “magic bullet”
the size of the specimen area in view is known as the…
field of view
what is a parfocal microscope
allows for ease of focusing when switching from low to high power
PSA (p30) is a…
protein unique to seminal plasma
what are used to focus the SEM
magnets
a microscope uses a combination of what to magnify an image?
lenses
an individual has what kind of antigens?
neither A nor B antigens
antibodies are found…
in the blood serum
an opaque object requires what type of illumination?
vertical illumination
if blood has both A and B antigens, the blood is type…
AB
for how long can spermatoza generally be found in the vagina of a living female?
motile sperm is 4-6 hours and a non-motile sperm is up to 72 hours
what is an image formed by the actual convergence of light rays on a screen
real image
for how long can the enzyme p30 be detected in the vaginal cavity after intercourse
up to 24 hours
what tests can identify if a stain is blood?
phenolphthalein, bluestar, luminol, and the benzidine test
what does the bonding of an antigen with its specific antibody cause
agglutination
what are some components of a compound microscope
illuminator, adjustment knobs, condenser, and stage
what test is frequently used to determine whether blood is of human origin>
precipitin test
which microscope can be linked to an x-ray analyzer
scanning electron microscope
what is an image that cannot be seen directly
virtual image
which microscope looks at gun shot residue
scanning electron microscope