Chapter 7 review

What is an ecological niche?
A population’s habitat, how it finds mates, raises its young, and survives
Domestication is the
Human interference with the reproduction of a species
Cultivation is distinct from domestication in that it describes
A form of niche construction
Human dependence on resources derived from a modified or a constructed environment results in increased
Sedentism.
Which of the following are examples of ways that domesticated plants differ from their wild counterpart
Larger kernel/seed size , Loss of protective structures,and, Stronger seed attachment to the stalk
Which of the following would be considered archaeological evidence of animal domestication?
Finding animals outside of their natural ranges, Skeletal changes due to changes in selective pressures, and Changes in the size of the animal population
At which stage of the animal-human-environment relationship scale would we expect to encounter the first significant human interference in the reproduction of a species
Controlled hunting
Based on the archaeological evidence, what animal was the first to be domesticated?
Dog
Which of the following would be considered evidence of increased sedentism among Natufian groups?
Structures with stone and mud walls , Stone mortars , and Art
Which of the following is used as evidence for the presence and/or emergence of social stratification among Natufian groups?
Individual burial
The domestication of plants marks the transition to the
The correct answer was:
Neolithic
Complex foraging and increased sedentism
Reduced the time between pregnancies.
Agriculture and the reliance on domesticated plants resulted in
Greater yield of plants per unit of ground.
The new agroecology of agricultural production resulted in
The accumulation of both human and animal wastes ,The exposure to new pathogens and disease vectors ,Increased the incidence and likelihood of epidemic diseases and Reduced disease resistance
What made the development of social stratification possible?
The production of surplus
Complex societies
Produce surplus , Have groups of people that are no longer involved in subsistence activities and Exhibit social stratification
Which of the following are considered archaeological evidence of social complexity?
The existence of groups of people that are no longer involved in subsistence activities, Evidence for settlement hierarchy , Size and content of graves and Public architecture
Which of the following is considered the primary factor behind the development of complex societies according to the hydraulic agriculture hypothesis?
The construction and maintenance of irrigation systems
Traditionally, it has been thought that which of the following is more powerful in determining a population’s adaptation?
Climatic factors and Geography/topography of local habitat
Some archaeologists think that a shift to broad-spectrum foraging resulted in
increased sedetism and population growth
evolutionary niche
Sum of all the natural selection pressures to which a population is exposed.
When an organism actively perturbs the environment or when it actively moves into a different environment.
niche construction
agriculture
The systematic modification of the environments of plants and animals to increase their productivity and usefulness
agroecology
The systematically modified environment (or constructed niche) which becomes the only environment within which domesticated plants can flourish.
sedentism
The process of increasingly permanent human habitation in one place.
broad-spectrum foraging
A subsistence strategy based on collecting a wide range of plants and animals by hunting, fishing, and gathering.
social stratification
A form of social organization in which people have unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige.
Neolithic
The “New Stone Age”, which began with the domestication of plants 10,300 years ago.
egalitarian social relations
Social relations in which no great differences in wealth, power, or prestige divide members from one another.
surplus production
The production of amounts of food that exceed the basic subsistence needs of the population.
occupational specialization
Specialization in various occupations (e.g., weaving or pot making) or in new social roles (e.g., king or priest) that is found in socially complex societies.
class
A ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society whose membership is defined primarily in terms of wealth, occupation, or other economic criteria.
complex societies
Societies with large populations, an extensive division of labor, and occupational specialization.
monumental architecture
Architectural constructions of a greater-than-human scale, such as pyramids, temples, and tombs
grave goods
Objects buried with a corpse
concentrations of particular artifacts
Sets of artifacts indicating that particular social activities took place at a particular area in an archaeological site when that site was inhabited in the past.
sherds
Pieces of broken pots.
bloodwealth
Material goods paid by perpetrators to compensate their victims for their loss.

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