Chapter 7 – Launching the Nation

Who was unanimously elected by the electoral college in January 1789; And the first president?
George Washington
What is a body of electors who represent the people’s vote in choosing the president?
electoral college
Who was George Washington’s wife and what did she do with him?
Martha Washington; entertained and accompanied her husband at social events. She was in charge of the presidential household.
why was Washington selected to be president
People saw him as honest leader and a hero of the Revolution
What is an action or decision that later serves as an example?
Who did Washington chose for secretary of state? And also served as ambassador to France?
Thomas Jefferson
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Who did Washington chose for secretary of treasury?
Alexander Hamilton; also a gifted economic planner
Who served as secretary of war? And helped Washington run the Continental Army
Henry Knox
Who was chosen as postmaster general? And had government experience?
Samuel Osgood
What act did Congress pass that created the 3 levels of federal court and defined their powers and relationship to the state courts.
Judiciary Act of 1789
What 2 important precedents were established for the federal government?
First congress created departments in the excutive branch for different areas of national policy ( Cabinet ). The create of 3 levels of federal courts and defined their powers and relationship to the state court
Who was George Washington’s vice president?
John Adams
Who was John Adams wife and what did she believe?
Abigail Adams; believed women needed to play a larger role in the nation than Martha Washington did.
Why did Abigail Adams and Judith Sargent Murray believe women should play a larger role in the nation?
because they educated their children to be good citizens; this was called Republican Motherhood
What did most women in the early republic face?
long days managing their households and working hard inside or outside the home to support their families
What did the new federal government establish in many areas when creating policies and procedures that would have great influence on the future nation?
a precedent; an action or decision that later serves as an example
What did Congress form to oversee various areas of national policy?
departments in the executive branch
What were the department heads that the president, Washington, met with known as?
cabinet members and key advisors
Who nominated candidates for federal judgeships
the president
Who held the power to approve or accept judges?
The Senate
Explain what the Judiciary Act of 1789 created
3 levels of federal courts and defined their powers and relationship to the state courts; set up federal district courts and circuit courts of appeals
What did Americans expect for the new nation?
trade that did not have the limits put in place by the British Parliament; protection from the government and stable economy
About how many people lived in the US in 1790?
4 million
Most Americans worked on farms; what did these Americans hope for?
fair taxes, the right to move onto western lands, they did not want the government to interfere with their daily lives
What did Americans who lived in towns worked as craftspeople, laborers, or merchants want?
help with their businesses; Merchants wanted simpler trade laws. Manufacturers wanted laws to shield them from overseas competitors.
Most cities were small; what two places topped 25,000 residents?
New York and Philadelphia
What was the first capital and reflected the new nation’s spirit?
New York City
What did the agreement in 1792 that some 24 stockbrokers signed under a buttonwood tree on Wall Street create?
the New York Stock Exchange; it cemented Wall Streets’ image as the economic hub of the US
As secretary of treasury, what was Hamilton’s biggest challenge?
paying off the national debt that was occurred from the Revolutionary War; (money owed by the United States)
Money owed by the United States from the Revolutionary War is called ?
national debt
certificates of debt that carry a promise to buy back at a higher price is called?
How much did the US owed to foreign countries from the war?
about $11.7 million
About how much did the US owe the citizens?
$40.4 million
How did the government raise money during the Revolutionary war?
Bonds; certificates of debt that cary a promise to buy back the bonds at a higher price
The government could not keep the promise to buy the bonds back at higher prices so who did some bond holders sell their bonds to?
Who are speculators?
people who buy items at low prices in the hope that the value will rise and they can sell the items for a profit
What was Hamilton’s plan in nation’s debt ?
pay the foreign debt immediately and gradually repay the total value of all bonds
Why did Jefferson disagree with Hamilton’s plan for national debt?
he thought the idea cheated bondholders who had sold their bonds at low prices; “Immense sums were thus filched (stolen) form the poor ignorant”
Who did most politicians agree with when it concerned paying back the bonds
Hamilton; and paying back the bonds; in 1790 the government exchanged old bonds for new, more reliable ones that were guaranteed
The states owed $25 million for the Revolutionary war expenses; how much did Hamilton want to pay and why?
$21.5 million; he believed this action would help the federal government and paying the debts would help the national economy; it would free up the states money for trade and business
Why did southern states, such as Virginia and North Carolina, objecte to paying the war debts?
their war debts were relatively low
In the 1790s, most Americans lived_______?
in the countrysides and worked on family farms.
In his farewell address in 1796, president Washington advised American of what?
The dangers of ties with foreign nations
President Washington demonstrated the government’s power under the new constitution to enforce federal law in the way he handle the _______
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1792, 24 stockbrokers signed an agreement under a tree on wall street in manhattan. This event was the foundation of the future ________.
New York Stock Exchange
What issues on which Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson had differing views?
role of the central government, national bank and protective tariffs
The two party system that exists in American politics today first arose during the election of which president?
John Adams
Why did the Southern states want the capital moved?
they thought it gave the northern states to much power
How did Hamilton, Jefferson, and James Madison get the southern states to help pay off the war debts?
change the location of the capital from New York to Philadelphia for 10 years then finally to Washington, DC
What kind of government did Hamilton want?
a strong central (federal) government that balanced power between the “mass of the people” and wealthier citizens; he did not want the citizens to have to much power; he had little faith in the average person
What kind of government did Jefferson want?
protection of state powers; the people had a right to rule the country; he admitted that “the people can not be all, and always, informed”
How did Hamilton want the economy to grow? List 3 ways
promote manufacturing and business; suggested government award a prize to companies that made excellent products; higher tariffs known as protective tariffs to encourage purchasing American goods
How did Jefferson want the economy to grow? List 2 ways
did not want to depend to much on business and manufacturing; backed farmers and lower tariffs
What was Hamilton’s plan for a National Bank?
wanted a national bank so the government could safely deposit money; it would make loans to the government and businesses; should build a national mint; each state should also have it’s own bank; loose construction
Why did Jefferson and Madison disagree with a national bank?
he believed a national bank would give the federal government to much power; the US Constitution did not give Congress the power to create a bank; strict construction
What clause did Hamilton declare allowed the government the ability to create a national bank?
the Elastic Clause
What is loose construction? And who supported it?
means the federal government can take reasonable actions that the Constitution does not specifically forbid; Hamilton
What is strict construction? And who supported it?
favoring that the federal government should do only what the Constitution specifically says it can do; Jefferson
Why did Washington and Congress want The Bank of the United States?
It helped make the U.S. economy more stable.
Who enacted a charter for the, Bank of the United States, the country’s first national bank?
The third U.S. president
Thomas Jefferson
A rebellion of French people against their king in1789
French Revolution
unbiased, not favoring either side in a conflict
a decision reached by two or more people
Little Turtle
Commander of Native American Alliance who, supplied by British guns, defeated US forces in 1790
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Documents argued that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional
Alien and Sedition Acts
These laws were said to protect the United States, but the Federalists intended them to crush opposite to war
XYZ Affair
The French demand for a bribe came to be called
Democratic Party
wanted to limit the federal goverment’s power
Federlist Party
Wanted a strong federal goverment and supported industry and trade
Political Parties
Groups that help elect people and shape policies
Whiskey Rebellion
Farmers lashed out against the tax of whiskey
Treaty of Greenville
Gave the United States claim to most Indian lands in the Northwest Territory
Battle of Fallen Timbers
On August 20, 1794, Native Americans fought Anthony Wayne’s troops and were defeated
Pickney’s Treaty
Settled the border and trade disputes with Spain
Jay’s Treaty
Settled the disputes that had arisen between the United States and Great Britain in the early 1790’s
Private ships hired by a country to attack its enemies
Bank of the United States
The countrys first national bank
French Revolution
A rebellion of French people against their king in1789
Neutrality Proclamation
Stated that the United States would not take sides with any European countries that were at war
The first capital of the Untited States was in __________.
New York City
Alien Act
gave president authority to deport individuals whom he considered threat to US
Sedition Act
made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government
Edmund Gen
France’s new representative to the united states that asked American seamen to command privateers
5 Departments heads appointed by president and approved by senate (job advise the president)
Mt. Vernon
Washington’s home in Virginia
He lost the presidential election of 1796 and later tried to declare the Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional.
Thomas Jefferson
He won the presidential election of 1796 and became the second president of the United States.
John Adams
What are the 3 branches of U.S. government?
Executive, Legislative, Judicial
The branch of government that carries out the law is _______.
Executive branch
The branch of government that makes the law is _______.
Legislative branch
The branch of government that interpret/evaluate the law is _______.
Judicial branch
unbiased, not favoring either side in conflict
to acknowledge, often reluctantly, as being true,just, or proper
How did Alien and Sedition Acts create division among some Americans?
It goes against our freedom of speech and freedom of the press, violated our constitution.
In what ways did Hamilton and Jefferson disagree in the economy?
Hamilton want to promote manufacturing and business, Jefferson want agricultural and farming.
Why Washington believe it was important for US to remain neutraul?
Be allied with other nations will involve war
Hamilton wants ____ protective tariffs (higher taxes), ____ banks, ____government .
to pass , national, strong central ( balance power between ” mass of people” and wealthier citizens )
Jefferson wants _____ protective tariffs (higher taxes), _____ banks, _____ government.
no, no national, people to rule