Chapter 7: Cytology (Study of Cells)

cell wall chloroplast
What do plant cells have that animal cells don’t
centrioles cell membrane
What do animal cells have that plant cells don’t?
animal
Which type of cell has numerous vacuoles that are small in size?
cell membrane
double layer of protein and lipid around all cells that separates interior from outside environment and is semi-permeable
cell wall
rigid structure outside cell membrane that provides support
nucleus
double membrane bound organelle contains genetic material (DNA) and “controls” cell
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chromosome
bodies within the nucleus made of DNA and proteins called the histones
nucleolus
small dense organelle within nucleus that contains DNA, RNA and protein
nuclear membrane
semi-permeable membrane that surrounds nucleus and consists of protein-lipid molecules
cytoplasm
semi-liquid substance that contains organelles
ribosomes
small organelles composed of RNA and proteins; synthesizes extracellular proteins (RER) and intracellular proteins (cytoplasm)
mitochondrion
double membrane bound organelle produces ATP and is site of cellular respiration
endoplasmic reticulum
extensive system of membrane that transports material through channels and may connect to cell membrane
rough ER
A network of interconnected membranous covered with ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins
smooth ER
Synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroid sex hormones-help detoxify drugs and poisons (liver cells)
golgi apparatus
system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell, synthesizes cell secretions and source of lysosomes
vacuoles
membrane bound sac that transports raw materials, wastes and is used for storage of water/food
lysosomes
double membrane sac containing hydrolytic enzymes, used for digestion
plastids
A group of membrane-bound organelles commonly found in photosynthetic organisms and mainly responsible for the synthesis and storage of food
chloroplast
organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
chlorophylls
green pigment required for photosynthesis that traps the radiant energy of sunlight
cytoskeleton
network of protein scaffolding that provides shape, organization and movement
microfilaments
thin protein tubules that hold organelles in place and enable cells to change shape
intermediate filaments
anchors organelles
fibers which give cells strength; insoluble and the most durable of the cytoskeletal elements
microtubules
thick, hollow protein rods that provide shape/support and serve as “tracks” for organelles to move on
centrioles
help with cell division; separate chromosomes during cell division (mitosis)
cilium
short, numerous structures arranged in rows and involved in locomotion and movement
flagellum
long, single threadlike organelle used for locomotion
pinocytosis
“cell drinking”
phagocytosis
“cell eating”
pinocytic vesicle
A vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules
contractile vacuole
The cell structure that collects extra water from the cytoplasm and then expels it from the cell
archaebacteria and eubacteria
domains of prokaryotic
plasmid
Small, circular piece of DNA located in the cytoplasm of many bacteria
mesosome
Plasma membrane folds into the cytoskeleton; significant in copying DNA prior to division
nucleoid
area of cell containing main chromosomes
Robert Hooke
who was the first to observe cells
1665
when did Robert Hooke discover cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Who is credited with first observing microorganisms?
Scheiden Schwann Virchow
Three contributors to the cell theory?
Scheiden Schwann
Two scientist who helped formulate that all living things are composed of cells?
Virchow 1858
Scientist who said all cells are produced from pre-existing cells? What year?
Schledien 1838
_________ said all plants are composed of cells in ____
Schwann 1839
__________ said all animals are composed of cells
eukaryotic
which type of cell has histone proteins?
cell membrane, cytoplasm, chromosomes, ribosomes
common features of prokaryote and eukaryote?