Chapter 7 – Consumer Buying Behavior

Abercrombie & Fitch is developing a program to get to know its customers. Which of the following is not a reason why A&F needs to understand consumer buying behavior?

a) customer’s reactions to marketing strategy can impact the firm’s success
b) all customers are the same when it comes to buying behavior
c) a firm should create a marketing mix that satisfies customers
d) it helps the marketer predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies
e) the marketing concept stresses that a firm should know its customers

b) all customers are the same when it comes to buying behavior
Purchasers who intend to use or benefit from the purchased product and do not buy products to make profits are part of the

consumer market.
end-use consumption group.
business market.
household purchasing group.
organizational market.

consumer market
Many aspects of consumer buying decisions are affected by the individual’s level of involvement. Level of involvement is

a) the importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation.
b) the buyer’s perception, motives, and abilities.
c) the amount of external search that an individual puts into the decision-making process.
d) the particular circumstance or environment in which consumers find themselves.
e) a combination of an individual’s demographic factors.

a) the importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation.
Justin is purchasing his third car in the past five years. He has been a car enthusiast ever since he was a little boy. He likes to spend his free time looking at car magazines, going to car shows, and watching NASCAR. Justin’s interest in cars is referred to as

situational involvement.
dynamic involvement.
enduring involvement.
dynamic buying behavior.
situational buying behavior

enduring involvement.
A major determining factor in deciding which type of problem-solving process should be used depends on the individual’s intensity of interest in a product and the importance of the product for that person. This is known as an individual’s

motivational structure.
routinized response behavior.
level of involvement.
cognitive dissonance.
evaluative criteria.

level of involvement.
Chloe and Max are searching for a health club to join. This purchase will likely be affected by
___________ involvement.

low
internal
enduring
evoked
perceived

enduring
Temporary and dynamic factors that result from a particular set of circumstance a consumer is facing when making purchase decisions characterize

enduring involvement.
extended problem solving.
selective exposure.
situational involvement.
selective retention.

situational involvement.
The three most widely recognized types of consumer problem solving are:

a) limited problem solving, extended problem solving, and routinized response behavior.
b) extended problem solving, enduring problem solving, and situational problem solving.
c) planned problem solving, impulse buying, and limited problem solving.
d) internal problem solving, external problem solving, situational behavior.
e) responsive behavior, planned behavior, and impulsive problem solving.

a) limited problem solving, extended problem solving, and routinized response behavior.
While shopping at a Kroger grocery store, Tom sees a display of his favorite brand of diet cola. He buys a six-pack to take home for the weekend. This purchase process would be described as

routinized response behavior.
extended problem solving.
limited problem solving.
situational perception.
enduring involvement.

routinized response behavior.
Which of the following consumer problem-solving processes will probably be used in purchasing toothpaste?

Extended problem solving
Routinized response behavior
Intensive problem solving
Limited problem solving
Perceptual scanning

Routinized response behavior
Which product listed would most likely be purchased through routinized response behavior?

Car
Desk
Shirt
Soft drink
Television set

soft drink
Which of the following buying situations is most consistent with routinized response behavior?

a) Ian buying his first pair of basketball shoes
b) Molly buying a new set of tires for her car
c) Aaron buying a new fishing rod and reel
d) Stephanie buying bottled water
e) Bryan buying a new software program

d) Stephanie buying bottled water
Stacy is going to the store to buy a gallon of milk. She will most likely use ___________ in her consumer decision-making process.

routinized response behavior
limited problem solving
extended problem solving
perceptual scanning
evaluation of alternatives

routinized response behavior
Routinized response behavior is what a consumer does when

a) purchasing an unfamiliar product.
b) buying frequently purchased, low-cost items that need little effort.
c) an information search is extensive and may involve consulting with friends and family.
d) buying products that require a moderate amount of time for information gathering and deliberation.
e) he or she enters the problem recognition stage of the consumer buying decision process.

b) buying frequently purchased, low-cost items that need little effort.
In contrast to extended problem solving, routinized response behavior requires

a) careful deliberation before making a choice.
b) less information about products.
c) more time.
d) considerable thought.
e) more money.

b) less information about products.
When a consumer purchases products occasionally or needs information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category, he or she will most likely engage in

enduring purchase behavior.
routinized response behavior.
extended problem solving.
impulse searching.
limited problem solving.

limited problem solving.
When a new variety of Kashi whole-grain breakfast cereals is first introduced, consumers will most likely engage in______ when deciding whether or not to purchase this new product.

extended problem solving
limited problem solving
situational solving behavior
routinized response behavior
automatic processing behavior

limited problem solving
Jenny plans to buy a new swimsuit for her spring break cruise. She has not seen this year’s styles and thus will do some comparison shopping before making a purchase decision. Jenny is engaging in

routinized response behavior.
extended problem solving.
limited problem solving.
impulse buying.
intensive problem solving.

limited problem solving.
Kellogg’s is introducing a new bran waffle for toasters. Television commercials will be a key element in communicating the benefits associated with this product. Based on that decision, Kellogg’s is expecting consumers to engage in what form of problem solving?

Routinized response behavior
Limited problem solving
Extended problem solving
Impulse buying
Extensive response behavior

Limited problem solving
For which of the following products would a consumer most likely use limited problem
solving?

Detergent
Toothpaste
Automobile
Hair dryer
Washing machine

Hair dryer
Which of the following purchases would most likely require a consumer to use extended
problem solving?

Audio equipment
Shaving cream
Cereal
Kitchen napkins
Gasoline

Audio equipment
Extended problem solving is the type of consumer problem-solving process that

a) involves no conscious planning but rather a powerful and persistent urge to buy something.
b) is the most complex problem-solving behavior, which comes into play when a purchase involves unfamiliar, expensive, or infrequently bought products.
c) requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering and search.
d) is the creation and maintenance of a collection of products that satisfy a person’s needs and wants.
e) requires very little search-and-decision effort and is practiced when buying lowcost and frequently purchased products.

b) is the most complex problem-solving behavior, which comes into play when a purchase involves unfamiliar, expensive, or infrequently bought products.
Which of the following products would probably require extended problem solving before a
purchase?

Products purchased frequently
Products to be purchased in the future
Products that are purchased routinely
Expensive products
Products purchased as a result of social influences

Expensive products
Jose and Teresa are searching for a new cellular phone. They will most likely engage in which one of the following forms of problem solving?

Extended problem solving
Limited problem solving
Impulse buying
Routinized response behavior
Intensive response behavior

Extended problem solving
An unplanned buying behavior resulting from a powerful urge to buy something immediately
is called

impulse buying.
habitual buying.
compulsive response behavior.
non-problem solving.
cognitive dissonance.

impulse buying.
Marissa goes to Target to purchase school supplies for her two children. As she is approaching the check-out counter, she sees a vase she just has to have and buys it immediately. Marissa’s purchase of the vase is an example of

limited problem solving.
impulse buying.
routinized response behavior.
addictive consumption.
situational involvement.

impulse buying.
Beth Hines is buying furniture for her apartment for the first time. She is spending considerable time and effort comparing the products that different stores offer. Which type of problem-solving process is she using?

Selective
Intensive
Extended
Shopping
Routinized

Extended
Mark is shopping for a new suit to wear to an important interview. He really wants to impress his prospective employer and is shopping at many stores to find the right outfit. Martin is using which type of consumer problem-solving process?

Routinized response behavior
Habitual response
Information search
Extended problem solving
Intensive problem solving

Extended problem solving
The five major stages of the consumer buying decision process, in order, are

a) information search, establishment of product criteria, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and postpurchase evaluation
b) problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and postpurchase evaluation.
c) problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, postpurchase evaluation and purchase.
d) information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, trial adoption period, and postpurchase evaluation.
e) problem recognition, purchase, evaluation of alternatives, postpurchase evaluation, and rebuy.

b) problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and postpurchase evaluation.
Which of the following statements about the consumer buying decision process is true?

a) Consumers progress through the five stages of this process for all limited problem-solving decisions.
b) Although all of the steps in the process are used in all decision processes, the order tends to depend on the customer’s level of involvement.
c) The key element of the process that exists in all consumer buying decision processes is the purchase of the product.
d) Once the purchase of a product has been made, the consumer buying decision process is complete.
e) Consumers making limited problem-solving decisions may not go through all five steps of the process.

e) Consumers making limited problem-solving decisions may not go through all five steps of the process.
Problem recognition occurs when a consumer

a) searches for information to resolve a problem.
b) becomes aware that there is a difference between a desired state and an actual condition.
c) recognizes a need.
d) evaluates her or his purchase.
e) is exposed to a television advertisement.

b) becomes aware that there is a difference between a desired state and an actual condition.
When Julia goes to the first class of her Operations Management course, she finds out that in addition to the textbook she already purchased, she also needs a copy of the book The Goal. At which stage of the consumer buying decision process is Julia?

Purchase
Evaluation of alternatives
Problem recognition
Information search
Prepurchase evaluation

Problem recognition
As Steve is shopping for groceries, he notices a product on the shelf and remembers that he
is about to run out of it at home. In terms of the consumer buying decision process, Steve
just experienced

problem recognition.
high involvement.
postpurchase evaluation.
information search.
evaluation of alternatives

problem recognition.
Within the information search step of the consumer buying decision process, what two primary aspects exist?

a) Consideration sets and evoked sets
b) Personal information and non-personal information
c) Selective retention and selective distortion
d) Internal search and external search
e) Company-produced information and internal information

d) Internal search and external search
As Jeff runs out of shaving cream, he immediately tries to remember what he did the last time this happened. He is engaging in

external search.
consideration set development.
internal search.
cognitive dissonance.
alternative evaluation.

internal search.
When Trevor realizes his liquor cabinet supply was devastated by last weekend’s party, he first retrieves information from his memory about what types of liquor he and his friends like most and then asks the attractive clerk at the liquor store what she would recommend. Trevor started with a(n) _____ search and then progressed to a(n) _____ search.

consideration; evaluative
focused; broad
internal; external
routinized; extended
self; inclusive

internal; external
When, in their information search, consumers focus on communication with friends and relatives, they are utilizing ______ sources.

internal
personal
marketer-dominated
direct
organizational

personal
In the consumer buying decision process, the information search stage

a) yields a group of brands that a buyer views as possible alternatives.
b) involves a buyer becoming aware of the need for a product.
c) is not necessary when the buyer is involved in extensive decision making.
d) occurs immediately after evaluation of alternatives.
e) is lengthy for routine response buying behavior.

a) yields a group of brands that a buyer views as possible alternatives.
A publication such as Consumer Reports may be initially used during a(n)

product recognition.
evaluation of alternatives.
internal information search.
external information search.
purchase decision.

external information search.
When shopping for detergent, Josh looks at Tide, Fresh Start, Surf, and All and chooses the one that is on sale. These four brands make up his _________ set.

alternate
purchase
consideration
problem
imposed

consideration
In shopping for a new laptop computer for her master degree program, the alternatives Jocelyn is considering include Dell, Toshiba, Sony, and Hewlett-Packard. These four brands make up Jocelyn’s

dissonance group.
evaluative group.
framing set.
external search results.
consideration set.

consideration set.
A group of brands that a consumer views as alternatives for possible purchase is called a(n)

evoked set.
acceptance group.
brand preference.
selective retention group.
evaluation criteria.

evoked set.
Evaluative criteria for brands within the consideration set are both

selective and expansive.
objective and subjective.
internal and external.
extended and routinized.
perceptive and selective.

objective and subjective.
A customer shopping for a fax machine tells a salesperson that it is important for the fax machine to have several attributes. It must use plain paper, be able to make copies, be compatible with all other fax machines, and not require a separate phone line. The buyer has expressed his or her

framing characteristics.
service characteristics.
consideration set.
evaluative criteria.
information search criteria.

evaluative criteria.
All of the following are marketer-dominated sources of information except

salespeople.
advertising.
packaging.
friends.
displays.

friends.
During the evaluation of alternatives stage of the consumer buying decision process, framing
most likely influences the decision process of ___________ buyers.

younger
older
wealthier
veteran
inexperienced

inexperienced
After doing considerable shopping, Eric has just decided what brand and type of athletic shoes to buy and where he’s going to buy them. In what stage of the consumer buying decision process is Eric?

Problem recognition
Information search
Evaluation of alternatives
Purchase
Postpurchase evaluation

Purchase
Doubts in a buyer’s mind about whether the purchase decision made was the right one may occur during the

cognitive dissonance.
purchase.
evaluation of alternatives.
internal search.
postpurchase evaluation.

postpurchase evaluation.
After purchasing a new Lexus, Pablo sees an Infinity pass by on the street and begins to wonder if he made the right choice. Pablo is experiencing

problem recognition.
cognitive dissonance.
internal search.
alternative evaluation.
framing.

cognitive dissonance.
After purchasing a product, postpurchase evaluation may result in cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is

a) the congruence between external and internal searches for product information.
b) a function of the manner in which the manufacturer of the product describes its attributes.
c) satisfaction with the purchase.
d) the establishment of criteria for comparing products.
e) doubts that occur because the buyer questions whether the decision to purchase the product was right

e) doubts that occur because the buyer questions whether the decision to purchase the product was right
The three major categories of influences on the consumer buying decision process are:

a) situational influences, demographic influences, and psychological influences.
b) social influences, situational influences, and marketer-dominated influences.
c) demographic influences, situational influences, and marketer-dominated influences.
d) situational influences, social influences, and psychological influences.
e) marketer-dominated influences, psychological influences, and person-specific influences.

d) situational influences, social influences, and psychological influences.
The five categories of situational influences are:

a) product involvement level, physical surroundings, social surroundings, time perspective, and purchase reason.
b) antecedent states, physical surroundings, social surroundings, time perspective, and space dimensions.
c) social surroundings, physical surroundings, time pressures, purchase reason, and lifestyles.
d) purchase reason, time perspective, social surroundings, physical surroundings, and buyer’s momentary mood.
e) store atmosphere, location, aromas, sounds, and lighting.

d) purchase reason, time perspective, social surroundings, physical surroundings, and buyer’s momentary mood.
Bob Turner makes an appointment to visit with a new dermatologist in town to determine whether he should have several moles on his neck removed. When he arrives at the dermatologist’s office, Bob notices a foul odor in the air, worn floor coverings, cluttered rooms
that have paint peeling from the walls, and poor lighting. While Bob viewed the dermatologist as competent, Bob decided not to have the moles removed even though the dermatologist recommended removal. Which situational influences are most likely to have affected Bob’s decision?

Social surroundings
Customer’s momentary mood and condition
Time pressures
Purchase reasons
Physical surroundings

Physical surroundings
___________ are situational influences that include the characteristics and interactions of others who are present when a purchase decision is being made, such as friends, relatives, and salespeople.

Physical surroundings
Social surroundings
Purchase reasons
Buyer’s momentary mood and condition
Pressures created by time factors

Social surroundings
The primary psychological influences on consumer behavior are:

a) perception, motives, learning, attitudes, personality, and lifestyles.
b) attitudes, perception, retention, exposure, roles, and lifestyles.
c) attitudes, perception, social class, culture, and learning.
d) perception, motives, reference groups, social class, and personality.
e) lifestyles, personality, perception, motives, attitudes, and culture.

a) perception, motives, learning, attitudes, personality, and lifestyles.
Perception is a three-step process that involves

a) motivation, personality, and attitudes.
b) classifying, recording, and eliminating information received through the senses.
c) collecting, eliminating, and organizing information inputs.
d) selecting, organizing, and interpreting information inputs.
e) anticipating, classifying, and discarding information inputs.

d) selecting, organizing, and interpreting information inputs.
In the process of perception, individuals receive sensations through sight, sound, taste, smell, and hearing. These sensations are called

selective inputs.
olfactory receptors.
information inputs.
perceptual motives.
psychological influences

information inputs.
Selective exposure refers to

a) targeting only certain parts of the total market.
b) admitting only certain inputs into consciousness.
c) the circumstances or conditions that exist when a consumer is making a purchase decision.
d) the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning.
e) remembering inputs that support personal feelings and beliefs and forgetting those that do not.

b) admitting only certain inputs into consciousness.
As Brianna walks to classes, she selects, organizes, and interprets the sensations she is receiving through her sense organs. Brianna is experiencing the process of

exposure.
motivation.
learning.
attitude formation.
perception.

perception.
When individuals choose which information inputs will reach their awareness and ignore other inputs, they are using

perception.
selective distortion.
selective exposure.
cognitive dissonance.
selective retention.

selective exposure.
If a consumer receives information that is inconsistent with her or his beliefs, the consumer may alter this information. This perceptual process is known as selective

exposure.
distortion.
retention.
information.
organization.

distortion.
After certain inputs have been selected to reach an individual’s awareness, the next step in the perceptual process is perceptual

organization.
attention.
retention.
interpretation.
redefinition.

organization.
Maria reads through the newspaper fashion flyers containing advertisements for sweaters from Polo, purses from JC Penney, and tennis shoes from Foot Locker. She remembers only the shoe ad, thanks to the recent tear in her own Reeboks. Maria has engaged in selective

distortion.
decision making.
analysis.
retention.
reading.

retention.
When organizing perceptual inputs, people tend to mentally fill in missing elements in a pattern or statement. This principle is called

interpretation.
completion.
distortion.
closure.
linking.

closure.
Assignment of meaning to organized information inputs is called

motivation.
redefinition.
learning.
interpretation.
selection.

interpretation.
A salesperson at Best Buy tells Patrick Dunnavan that the Sony Notebook is one of the most reliable computer notebooks ever made. Patrick, however, has just heard about a second Sony recall for this model because of overheating. His most likely response will be to

a) buy the Sony.
b) forget the information from the salesperson.
c) ignore the recall as a fluke.
d) focus on positive aspects of the Sony.
e) cease shopping for a computer notebook at this time.

b) forget the information from the salesperson.
Consumers tend to remember information inputs that support their feelings and beliefs and forget inputs that do not. This is known as selective

exposure.
distortion.
retention.
information.
organization.

retention.
Which of the following statements about how a consumer organizes inputs that reach awareness is most accurate?

a) Inputs are organized by individuals to produce meaning, and this organizational process is usually a slow one.
b) Organization of information inputs is not always needed to produce meaning.
c) Inputs that reach awareness are organized and interpreted in much the same way by all consumers.
d) Because a person interprets information in terms of what is familiar, only one interpretation of organized inputs is possible.
e) Inputs that reach awareness are organized to produce meaning, and this meaning is interpreted in light of what is familiar to the individual.

e) Inputs that reach awareness are organized to produce meaning, and this meaning is interpreted in light of what is familiar to the individual.
Buyers’ actions are affected by one or more internal energizing forces geared toward satisfying needs, which are called

motives.
lifestyles.
perceptions.
attitudes.
traits.

motives.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs refers to the five levels of needs that humans seek to satisfy, from most to least important. These needs, in order from most to least important are

a) psychological, physiological, safety, social, and esteem.
b) physiological, safety, esteem, social, and self-actualization.
c) physiological, psychological, safety, social, and esteem.
d) physiological, safety, social, and esteem, self-actualization.
e) physiological, esteem, safety, self-actualization, and psychological.

d) physiological, safety, social, and esteem, self-actualization.
According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs,

a) individuals simultaneously try to satisfy all five levels of needs.
b) self-actualization needs are the most important needs to be met for most individuals.
c) individuals first address needs at the top of the pyramid and then move down to the lower level needs.
d) levels of needs are different for everyone, and we all try to satisfy them in a different order.
e) individuals first satisfy the most basic needs and then try to fulfill needs at the next level up.

e) individuals first satisfy the most basic needs and then try to fulfill needs at the next level up.
Human requirements for love, affection, and a sense of belonging would be classified by Maslow as _____ needs.

safety
esteem
social
physiological
self-actualization

social
Jana now feels that her teeth are not white enough after seeing advertisements for whitening toothpaste. Marketers promote these brands based on ___________ needs, appealing to sex appeal.

physiological
esteem
self-actualization
psychological
social

physiological
People’s needs to grow, develop, and achieve their full potential are referred to by Maslow as ______ needs.

ego
esteem
self-actualization
social
safety

self-actualization
The U.S. Army recruits soldiers based on the slogan, “An army of one,” implying that people can reach their full personal potential in the U.S. Army. This is an appeal to what need according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?

Safety
Esteem
Self-actualization
Physiological
Social

Self-actualization
Psychological influences that determine where a person purchases products on a regular basis are called

convenience responses.
patronage motives.
shopping motives.
pattern responses.
routine decisions.

patronage motives.
Luis likes shopping at Stein Mart, a discount department store, because he likes the prices, products, and services the store provides. His selection of this store as a regular stop when shopping is influenced by ___________ motives.

self-concept
self-image
projective
depth
patronage

patronage
Changes in an individual’s thought processes and behavior caused by information and experience is called

learning.
attitude formation.
patronage motives.
personality.
motivation.

learning.
Marketers often provide consumers with experience to their products, including free samples and trial offers, to facilitate consumer

patronage motives.
attitudes.
perception.
distortion.
learning.

learning.
An attitude is

a) an internal trait that makes a person unique.
b) a set of actions that a person in a particular position is supposed to perform.
c) a competence in performing activities.
d) a person’s behavior caused by information and experience.
e) one’s evaluation, feelings, and behavioral tendencies toward an object or idea.

e) one’s evaluation, feelings, and behavioral tendencies toward an object or idea.
Having used both Secret and Sure deodorants, Annette feels that Secret is a good product and the one that best meets her needs. She has formed a(n) ___________ about Secret.

motive
consideration set
cognition
attitude
self-concept

attitude
Cognitive, affective, and behavioral are the three major components of

self-concept.
motives.
lifestyles.
consumer socialization.
attitudes.

attitudes.
What consumer research method consists of a series of adjectives, phrases, or sentences regarding an object, with subjects indicating the intensity of their feelings toward this object by reacting to these adjectives, phrases, or sentences?

Projective specification
Patronage clarification
Group interview
Attitude scale
Depth interview

Attitude scale
Melanie prefers to shop at Target for most of her household needs even though the same products and brands are available at KMart. She prefers the service, location, and friendliness of the employees at Target. Melanie’s reasons that influence her decision to shop at Target are called

social needs.
learning processes.
patronage motives.
product attitudes.
retailer attitudes.

patronage motives.
An attitude scale measures the

a) strength of a buyer’s need for a product.
b) buyer’s level of information about a product.
c) amount of experience the buyer has had with the product.
d) intensity of a buyer’s feelings toward a certain object.
e) intensity of a buyer’s desire for the product.

d) intensity of a buyer’s feelings toward a certain object.
Changing people’s attitudes toward a firm and its marketing program is

a) simple when advertisements are used.
b) impossible, even if the firm uses advertisements.
c) a long, expensive, and difficult task that may require extensive advertising campaigns.
d) unnecessary, since consumer attitudes are of little importance.
e) rarely attempted through the use of marketing practice.

c) a long, expensive, and difficult task that may require extensive advertising campaigns.
The results of many studies have been inconclusive regarding the association between buyer behavior and

personality.
perception.
motives.
social class.
learning.

personality.
Hereditary characteristics combined with personal experiences that together make an individual unique form one’s

self-concept.
attitudes.
lifestyle.
personality.
role.

personality.
The development of a person’s self-concept is a function of

learning.
psychological and social factors.
reference groups and opinion leaders.
roles and family influences.
subcultures.

psychological and social factors.
Shane spends most of his free time participating in extreme sports and traveling to exotic locations with a group of close friends who share his interests and opinions about most things. This is a description of Shane’s

self-concept.
lifestyle.
personality.
attitudes.
role.

lifestyle.
A consumer’s buying decisions are affected in part by the people around him or her. Such people and the forces they exert on an individual buyer are called

motivational influences.
social influences.
roles.
personality influences.
cultural influences.

social influences.
The actions and activities associated with a position one holds within a group, organization, or institution constitute

personality.
a role.
a motive.
perception.
an attitude.

a role.
Jonathan is torn between buying a new swing set for his kids and buying a new set of Ping golf clubs for himself. Jonathan is experiencing

attitude formation.
belief assessment.
role inconsistency.
cognitive dissonance.
personality.

role inconsistency.
The forces that other people exert on one’s buying behavior are called social influences. These come from reference groups and opinion leaders, social classes, culture and subcultures, roles, and

ethnic heritage.
personality.
attitudes.
perception.
family.

family.
Shaun is going shopping with his dad to buy his first baseball glove for Little League. He listens to his dad talk to the salesperson at the sporting goods store, watches him examine the stitching in the glove and then rub his finger over the leather palm. Shaun’s observations are part of his

consumer development.
attitude development.
purchasing evaluation.
consumer socialization.
consumer attitude.

consumer socialization.
Children often achieve ______ by observing parents and older siblings in purchase situations and then through their own purchase experiences.

consumer socialization
personality
role identification
social class
attitude formation

consumer socialization
Jennifer is interested in joining Kappa Lambda Iota sorority. She begins to shop at Sarah’s, a local store where the Kappas buy their clothes. She also asks her family for a new car because all the sorority members have new cars. In these instances, Jennifer is influenced
by

personality.
a reference group.
a consideration set.
a knowledge base.
a role conflict.

a reference group.
The three major types of reference groups are:

membership, aspirational, and advocacy.
advocacy, avoidance, and approach.
aspirational, disassociative, and membership.
actual, implied, and desired.
family, peer group, and media

aspirational, disassociative, and membership.
Marketers who attempt to use reference-group influence in advertisements are most likely to
succeed when messages indicate that

a) people in a specific group buy the product and are highly satisfied by it.
b) reference groups should be of little concern to the consumer.
c) reference groups are “in” and everyone should belong to at least one.
d) all products and brands are influenced by reference groups.
e) people in a specific group have tried the product and dislike it.

a) people in a specific group buy the product and are highly satisfied by it.
A group becomes a reference group for an individual when that person identifies with this group so strongly that he or she

a) takes on many of the values, attitudes, or behaviors of group members.
b) becomes a formal member of the group.
c) becomes familiar with the group’s activities.
d) seeks information from members of the group regarding buying decisions.
e) cannot control the strength of his or her involvement with the group.

a) takes on many of the values, attitudes, or behaviors of group members.
Which one of the following is most likely to be a product for which both the purchasing decision and the brand decision are strongly influenced by reference groups?

Canned peaches
Instant coffee
Jeans
Furniture
Soap

Jeans
An opinion leader is likely to be most effective under all of the following conditions except when the

a) follower has high product involvement.
b) follower has low product knowledge.
c) follower has values and attitudes similar to the opinion leader.
d) product details are numerous and complicated.
e) follower has attitudes and values that are different from those of the opinion leader.

e) follower has attitudes and values that are different from those of the opinion leader.
Katie is buying her first car and has narrowed her choices down to a Honda Civic, a Toyota Prius, or a Volkswagen Jetta. Katie goes on-line and posts questions to others who have experience with any of these cars, asking for reviews. Katie is most likely

using a blog.
an opinion leader.
using her reference groups for information.
experiencing enduring involvement.
exerting social influence.

using a blog.
Which of the following statements regarding social class is true?

a) A social class is a closed aggregate of people with similar social ranking.
b) The criteria used to group people into social classes do not vary from one culture to another.
c) A social class is an open aggregate of people with similar social ranking.
d) A social class is a ranking of people by other members of society into positions of social respect.
e) A social class is an open aggregate of people with different social rankings

c) A social class is an open aggregate of people with similar social ranking.
An open aggregate of people with similar social ranking is referred to as a

reference group.
social class.
role.
caste.
subculture.

social class
Our society uses many factors, including occupation, educational level, income, wealth, religion, race, ethnic group, and possessions, to group people into

family types.
geographic regions.
reference groups.
social classes.
attitudinal segments.

social classes.
According to Coleman’s major social class categories, which of the following social classes in our culture has these characteristics: lives in well-kept neighborhoods, likes fashionable items, and is often found in management positions?

Lower class
Upper class
Middle class
Working class
First class

Middle class
According to Coleman’s major social class categories, the social class in our society that favors prestigious schooling, neighborhoods, and brands is the

upper class.
middle class.
upper-lower class.
working class.
lower class.

upper class.
According to Coleman’s social class categories, the social class that includes approximately 40 percent of the population, shops for bargains, and buys sports and recreational equipment is the

upper class.
middle class.
first class.
working class.
lower class.

working class.
A culture can be divided into subcultures according to

a) personality characteristics of individuals in that culture.
b) motives that members of that cultural group have for their behavior.
c) geographic regions or human characteristics, such as age or ethnic background.
d) income levels.
e) information to which consumers allow themselves to be exposed.

c) geographic regions or human characteristics, such as age or ethnic background.
Market researchers for a local bakery determined that Jewish people consume 63 percent of the portion of bagels sold in New York City. This is an example of ___________ influence on consumer buying decision processes.

a) demographic
b) situational
c) subcultural
d) role
e) social class

c) subcultural
Which American subculture spends the highest proportion of its income on utilities, footwear,
children’s apparel, groceries, and housing?

Native Americans
Hispanics
African Americans
Asian Americans
Americans over 65 years of age

African Americans
Which of the following is the fastest growing, most affluent subculture in the United States?

African Americans
Hispanics
Asian Americans
Native Americans
Italian Americans

Asian Americans
Consumers use information from many sources when making purchasing decisions, including information from friends and family members. One of the most dissatisfying consumer experiences is with auto repair. Aware of this, Karla has asked several of her friends and family members where they have their cars repaired, since she has been experiencing a problem with her car starting when the weather is cold. Karla has heard that Skola’s Auto Repair has reasonable prices, but it can be difficult to get an appointment.
However, one of her friends, Steve, had a very poor experience with Skola’s. Once he complained to them, they fixed the situation and now he prefers their auto shop over others.

The type of problem solving that consumers use to select an auto repair shop would normally
be

a) intensive problem solving.
b) extended problem solving.
c) routinized response behavior.
d) selective problem solving.
e) limited problem solving.

e) limited problem solving.
Consumers use information from many sources when making purchasing decisions, including information from friends and family members. One of the most dissatisfying consumer experiences is with auto repair. Aware of this, Karla has asked several of her friends and family members where they have their cars repaired, since she has been experiencing a problem with her car starting when the weather is cold. Karla has heard that Skola’s Auto Repair has reasonable prices, but it can be difficult to get an appointment.
However, one of her friends, Steve, had a very poor experience with Skola’s. Once he complained to them, they fixed the situation and now he prefers their auto shop over others.

A dissatisfied Skola’s Auto Repair customer told a friend about his experience. The friend has been a long-time Skola’s customer and the next day, didn’t remember what her friend told her. This is an example of

a) perceptive perception.
b) selective exposure.
c) selective distortion.
d) receptive exposure.
e) selective retention.

e) selective retention.
Consumers use information from many sources when making purchasing decisions, including information from friends and family members. One of the most dissatisfying consumer experiences is with auto repair. Aware of this, Karla has asked several of her friends and family members where they have their cars repaired, since she has been experiencing a problem with her car starting when the weather is cold. Karla has heard that Skola’s Auto Repair has reasonable prices, but it can be difficult to get an appointment.
However, one of her friends, Steve, had a very poor experience with Skola’s. Once he complained to them, they fixed the situation and now he prefers their auto shop over others.

The change in Steve’s behavior toward Skola’s Auto Repair, caused by the company’s response to his complaint, is a function of

a) perception.
b) motivation.
c) attitudes.
d) learning.
e) influence.

d) learning.
Consumers use information from many sources when making purchasing decisions, including information from friends and family members. One of the most dissatisfying consumer experiences is with auto repair. Aware of this, Karla has asked several of her friends and family members where they have their cars repaired, since she has been experiencing a problem with her car starting when the weather is cold. Karla has heard that Skola’s Auto Repair has reasonable prices, but it can be difficult to get an appointment.
However, one of her friends, Steve, had a very poor experience with Skola’s. Once he complained to them, they fixed the situation and now he prefers their auto shop over others.

Positive feelings generated by satisfaction with Skola’s response will become part of Steve’s

a) personality.
b) motives.
c) social class.
d) role.
e) attitude.

e) attitude.
Both the Toyota Sienna and the Nissan Quest were very popular choices for family vans. Toyota noticed that the majority of its customers were families with 3 or more children, and so they developed commercials that featured larger families. They also produced commercials that featured Hispanic-looking actors and for some markets, in Spanish. Alicia Desario and her husband were currently shopping for a van for their family. As Alicia listened to an advertisement on the television about the Nissan Quest, she noticed that the Nissan cost about $27,000 and had gas mileage of about 17 mpg. She recalled an earlier ad for the
Toyota Sienna, that also cost about $27,000, but had gas mileage of about 21 mpg. She also liked the way the family was portrayed in the Toyota ad, showing the children in the back seats having plenty of room, watching the DVD players, and having their own sound controls. When she spoke to Carlos, her husband, about how much she liked the Toyota van, he replied that it had too low of gas mileage at only 16 mpg. Since Alicia didn’t agree with that number, he produced a magazine ad that supported his claim of the 16 mpg for the Toyota. Alicia couldn’t believe that she had made such an error in hearing what the gas mileage was for the Toyota and the Nissan.

The fact that Alicia had remembered the gas mileage of the Toyota Sienna incorrectly is most likely an example of

a) selective expression.
b) selective retention.
c) perceptual extension.
d) perceptual bias.
e) selective distortion.

e) selective distortion.
Both the Toyota Sienna and the Nissan Quest were very popular choices for family vans. Toyota noticed that the majority of its customers were families with 3 or more children, and so they developed commercials that featured larger families. They also produced commercials that featured Hispanic-looking actors and for some markets, in Spanish. Alicia Desario and her husband were currently shopping for a van for their family. As Alicia listened to an advertisement on the television about the Nissan Quest, she noticed that the Nissan cost about $27,000 and had gas mileage of about 17 mpg. She recalled an earlier ad for the
Toyota Sienna, that also cost about $27,000, but had gas mileage of about 21 mpg. She also liked the way the family was portrayed in the Toyota ad, showing the children in the back seats having plenty of room, watching the DVD players, and having their own sound controls. When she spoke to Carlos, her husband, about how much she liked the Toyota van, he replied that it had too low of gas mileage at only 16 mpg. Since Alicia didn’t agree with that number, he produced a magazine ad that supported his claim of the 16 mpg for the Toyota. Alicia couldn’t believe that she had made such an error in hearing what the gas mileage was
for the Toyota and the Nissan.

Carlos’ knowledge of the correct gas mileage is an example of the ____ component of his attitude toward the Toyota, while Alicia’s feelings about the children in the commercial being happy in the Toyota van were an example of the _____ component of her attitude.

a) cognitive; affective
b) cognitive; behavioral
c) affective; cognitive
d) affective; behavioral
e) behavioral; affective

a) cognitive; affective
Both the Toyota Sienna and the Nissan Quest were very popular choices for family vans. Toyota noticed that the majority of its customers were families with 3 or more children, and so they developed commercials that featured larger families. They also produced commercials that featured Hispanic-looking actors and for some markets, in Spanish. Alicia Desario and her husband were currently shopping for a van for their family. As Alicia listened to an advertisement on the television about the Nissan Quest, she noticed that the Nissan cost about $27,000 and had gas mileage of about 17 mpg. She recalled an earlier ad for the
Toyota Sienna, that also cost about $27,000, but had gas mileage of about 21 mpg. She also liked the way the family was portrayed in the Toyota ad, showing the children in the back seats having plenty of room, watching the DVD players, and having their own sound controls. When she spoke to Carlos, her husband, about how much she liked the Toyota van, he
replied that it had too low of gas mileage at only 16 mpg. Since Alicia didn’t agree with that number, he produced a magazine ad that supported his claim of the 16 mpg for the Toyota. Alicia couldn’t believe that she had made such an error in hearing what the gas mileage was for the Toyota and the Nissan.

Toyota’s production of commercials that featured Hispanic actors and the Spanish language is an example of marketing to

a) cultural self-concepts.
b) social classes.
c) subcultures.
d) roles.
e) social strata.

c) subcultures.
Both the Toyota Sienna and the Nissan Quest were very popular choices for family vans. Toyota noticed that the majority of its customers were families with 3 or more children, and so they developed commercials that featured larger families. They also produced commercials that featured Hispanic-looking actors and for some markets, in Spanish. Alicia Desario and her husband were currently shopping for a van for their family. As Alicia listened to an advertisement on the television about the Nissan Quest, she noticed that the Nissan cost about $27,000 and had gas mileage of about 17 mpg. She recalled an earlier ad for the
Toyota Sienna, that also cost about $27,000, but had gas mileage of about 21 mpg. She also liked the way the family was portrayed in the Toyota ad, showing the children in the back seats having plenty of room, watching the DVD players, and having their own sound controls. When she spoke to Carlos, her husband, about how much she liked the Toyota van, he
replied that it had too low of gas mileage at only 16 mpg. Since Alicia didn’t agree with that number, he produced a magazine ad that supported his claim of the 16 mpg for the Toyota. Alicia couldn’t believe that she had made such an error in hearing what the gas mileage was for the Toyota and the Nissan.
Since Alicia and Carlos were using gas mileage as one of their evaluative criteria, they are most likely in the ______ phase of the consumer buying process.
a) problem recognition
b) external search
c) evaluation of alternatives
d) purchase
e) post-purchase
evaluation of alternatives