chapter 7

Direct instruction
approach to teaching in which the teacher transmits info directly to the students; lessons are goal oriented and structured by the teacher
Parts of direct instruction
State learning objectives and orient students to the lesson
Review prerequisites
Present new material
Conduct learning probes
Provide independent practice
Assess performance and provide feedback
Provide distributed practice
Lesson planning
Involves stating learning objectives; thinking through what the students will know or be able to do after the lesson; what information, activities, and experiences the teacher will provide; the time needed to reach the objective; what books, materials, and media support will be provided by the teacher; and the method(s) of instruction.
Mental set
Students’ attitude of readiness to begin a lesson
This intro might be used to grab students’ interest becuz it makes the subject personally relevant
Humor or drama
Pattern of teaching concepts by presenting a rule or definition, giving examples, and then showing how examples illustrate the rule
Embedded video
Used in lessons
Research finds that it helps children learn and retain info. to the degree that it is easy to understand and it clearly links to the main content.
Learning probe
A method, as questioning, that helps teachers find out whether students understand a lesson.
Wait time
Length of time that a teacher waits for a student to answer a question
Wait three sec.
Calling order
the order in which students are called on by the teacher to answer questions during the course of a lesson
All-pupil responses
responses to questions made by the entire class
Choral responses
Responses to questions made by an entire class in unison.
Independent practice
component of instruction in which students work by themselves to demonstrate and rehearse new knowledge
Work that students are assigned to do independently during class.
Process product studies
research approach in which the teaching practices of effective teachers are recorded through classroom observation
an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances
transfer of learning
The application of knowledge acquired in one situation to new, similar situations.
Affective objectives
objectives that have to do with student attitudes and values
A course on civics or government contains much info about how our gov’t works but also involves important values to be transmitted, such as civic duty and patriotism. Six reasons why it is Impt to vote
Whole class discussion
a discussion among all the students in the class with the teacher as moderator
Small-group discussion
A discussion among four to six students in a group working independently of a teacher.
How many seconds does a teacher need to do wait time?
3 to 6 seconds
State learning objectives and orient students to the lesson
Tell students what they will be learning and what performance will be expected of them. Whet students’ appetites for the lesson by informing them how interesting, important, or personally relevant it will be to them.
Review prerequisites
go over any skills or concepts students need in order to understand the lesson.
present new material
teach the lesson, presenting information, giving examples, demonstrating concepts, and so on.
conduct learning probes
pose questions to students to assess their level of understanding and correct their misconceptions.
provide independent practice
give students an opportunity to practice new skills or use new information on their own.
Assess performance and provide feedback
review independent practice work or give a quiz. Give feedback on correct answers, and reteach skills if necessary.
provide distributed practice and review
assign homework to provide distributed practice on the new material. Later lessons, review material and provide practice opportunites to increase the chances that students will remember what they learned and also be able to apply it in different circumstances.
What did a research say about embedded video?
children learn and retain information to the degree that it is easy to understand and clearly links to the main content.
How many minutes does Dr. Slavin recommend students to do independent practice assignments?
ten minutes for most objectives that are mentioned in the lessons.
Missouri Mathematics program
classic studies of a direct instruction math approach
Three rules when presenting examples of concepts
order the examples from easy to difficult
select examples that differ from one another
compare and contrast examples and nonexamples

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