Deep ditches that soldiers would stand in, used on the Western Front during WWI
term used to described World War I because it involved civilians and resulted in women entering the workforce. Governments controlled industry and they used propaganda to reinforce the evilness of the enemy.
The Treaty of Versailles
the leading Allied powers (Italy, Great Britain, France, and the United States) met in Versailles to settle issues stemming from the war; laid down harsh terms to which Germany had to agree. The map of Europe was redrawn, but nations such as Italy were still not satisfied with the results. Other nations such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia were all created in 1919 by the peace settlement.
Woodrow Wilson’s plan that called for self-determination of nationalities, peace without victory, disarmament, fair treatment of colonial peoples, and the establishment of the League of Nations. Most ideas were rejected, except for the League of Nations, which the U.S., ironically, did not join.
League of Nations
established in Geneva, Switzerland. , an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Japan’s invasion of Manchuria
Japan invaded Northeast China because of its natural resources. led to diplomatic protests in the League of Nations, which Japan left soon after.
Italy invaded Ethiopia
1935, as a result of global depression. Similar to Japan’s invasion of Manchuria.
Fascist Dictator of Italy that at first used bullying to gain power, then never had full power. Led a march on Rome in 1922 to initially demand to form a government. One of the major totalitarian dictators of the twentieth century.
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition.
Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich (1933-1945). His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kampf (1925-1927), attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. Hitler’s pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland (1939) and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent (1945).
giving in to a bully in a vain attempt to hope the bullying will stop. The policy of appeasement culminated in the 1939 Munich Agreement in which Britain and France handed Hitler the Sudetenland, a largely German-speaking population in northern Czechoslovakia.
German invasion of Poland in 1939
Germany easily defeats Poland with superior forces and officers; Causes Britain and France to declare war on Germany. Arguably started World War II.
Japanese invasion of China in 1937
When the Japanese invaded northeastern China and commenced the Rape of Nanking
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
A weapon with an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions. Developed in America and used to finish the war against the Japanese.
Led by the five Allied victors of the war (U.S., USSR, GB, France, and China). Established relief agencies and peacekeeping mechanisms.
forum for discussing world problems and their solutions.
Western Europe during the Cold War which was characterized by capitalism.
Eastern Europe during the Cold War which was characterized by communism.
movement encouraged by China, made up of developing countries. India and Indonesia were two prominent nations in this group.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.
1869-1948. Major spiritual and political leader of India and the Indian Peace Movement. Known as “Father of The Nation” in India for his defiance of British government and success in civil rights movement. Lead famous Dandi Salt March in opposition of British Salt Tax.
nonviolence in the face of attack
A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences.
achieved independence in 1957. Led by the U.S.-educated Kwame Nkrumah, strikes and protests were used to remove the British from power.
had a sizeable European population which blocked independence. This led to an armed revolt and eventually independence in 1963.
Belgian government departed suddenly in 1959, leaving behind a country of chaos and civil war.
created by European colonial powers led to nations that were comprised of unrelated ethnic groups who often became rivals competing for power.
where conflict between the majority Hutus and minority Tutsis led to a 100-day genocide in modern-day Nigeria.
the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910 from former British colonies, but the majority black population was granted no rights.
a series of restrictive laws in South Africa enacted with the goal of controlling the black population and maintaining the separate societies of black and white.
a system in which a nation administers a territory on behalf of the League of Nations
Balfour Declaration of 1917
It expressed support for a national home for the Jews in Palestine, it also added the rights of the non-Jewish people living there. It drew more Jews to Palestine.
Born 1918. 11th President of South Africa. Spent 27 years in prison after conviction of charges while he helped spearhead the stuggle against apartheid. Received Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
A Jewish state on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, both in antiquity and again founded in 1948 after centuries of Jewish diaspora.
Palestinian Liberation Organization
Political party and organization that fought for Palestinian rights
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-communist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
The elected parliament. Though through establishing this is seemed like the Czar was giving his people power, in reality he could easily get rid of this if they made any laws or such that he didn’t like.
March of 1917
Military defeat, shortages of food fuel and housing sparked revolts, rioters demanded bread, Nicholas 2 abdicated the throne, the Duma setup a temp. government which failed
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed.
“Peace, Land, and Bread”
the three things that Lenin promised to the Bolsheviks.
took control of the land, banks, and industries and used the Cheka, the secret police, to keep an eye on its people.
New Economic Policy
in 1921; allowed peasants to sell their products, but the government controlled banking, trade and heavy industry.
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.
Stalin’s mass systemic murder of millions to instill fear and to have someone to fight against in the 1930s. Thousands were tried and executed and millions were imprisoned.
Revolution of 1911
the revolution that resulted in China being turned into a republic soon after the death of Ci Xi
(1866-1925) Chinese nationalist leader who fought to end foreign domination. He formed the Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party, which overthrew the Manchu Dynasty and established a republican form of government in its place. Also known as Sun Yat-sen.
young army officer who inherited leadership of the struggling Republic of China following the death of Sun Yixian in 1924
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People’s Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Great Leap Forward
China’s second five-year plan under the leadership of the impatient Mao, it aimed to speed up economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialist society. This plan failed and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960.
(1966-1976) Political policy in started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, mass jailings, and the deaths of thousands.
a dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foriegn companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants
Constitution of 1917
Mexican constitution written during the revolution that is still in effect today
Party of Industrialized Revolution
dominant political party in Mexico; developed during the 1920s and 1930s; incorporated labor, peasant, military, and middle-class sectors; controlled other political organizations in Mexico
Shia Islam’s term for Muslim community. Opposed Shah Reza’s rule because they felt that traditional religion was being oppressed.
the leader of Iran after World War II that was supported by Western government and Western oil companies. He tried to weaken the political influence of religion in Iran by limiting the role of the Islamic legal and academic experts. He was forced to flee from Iran in January 1979.
students and intellectuals
felt oppressed under rule of Shah Reza
farmers and urban workers
were hurt by inflation and unemployment under rule of Shah Reza
religious leader who in 1979 forced the Shah into exile. Under his rule, the sharia (Islamic law) became the law of the land. Women, for instance, were required to return to traditional Islamic clothing and were also placed under legal restrictions.
He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets. Under his rule a small percentage of people were very wealthy and the masses of peasants were quite poor.
organized a guerrilla movement which initially failed, but eventually captured power in 1959. Though he had promised to hold elections, Castro did not do so, and at first, even denied that he was a communist. When he established close ties with the USSR, the United States viewed him as a threat.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Cuban Missile Crisis
standoff in 1962 which occurred when Soviet missiles were discovered in Cuba. The United States and the Soviet Union compromised, and a third world war was avoided.
Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong. Came to power in 1976.
industry, agriculture, technology, and national defense. Part of the economic modernization program instituted by Deng Xiaoping.
where massive student rebellion occurred in May 1989 in China. Students called for democratic reforms, but instead were met with troops and tanks sent to crush the rebellion. The Chinese government reinforced the ideas that party leadership and political stability were the keys to China’s success.
people (or countries) who are not aligned with other people (or countries) in a pact or treaty
A region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent; India and Pakistan dispute control of it.
came to power in the Soviet Union in 1953 and initiated a de-Stalinization movement which criticized Stalin’s faults and encouraged more freedom of expression.
From 1964-1982, he maintained power and retreated from de-Stalinization. He instead took a restrictive policy towards dissidents and free expression. During this period, industrial growth declined; the primary problem was the absence of incentives and a system of quotas.
came to power in 1985, and introduced his policy of perestroika(restructuring) which marked the beginning of a market economy with limited free enterprise and some private property. His policy of glasnost (openness) encouraged a discussion of strengths and weaknesses of the Soviet system. The formation of other parties and two-candidate elections were also introduced.
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society.
“Openness; called for increased transparency in government institutions and activities within the USSR; Mikhail Gorbachev. Usually paired with “Perestroika”..
a movement in Czechoslovakia in the late 1960s which began in the hopes of creating a form of socialism with more freedom of speech and economic freedom. This movement was short-lived, however, after Soviet troops invaded with the intention of crushing it.
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc’s first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
International War Crimes Tribunal
In 2000, Milosevic was ousted from power and was tried for war crimes at the —.
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Goal of Japan five years following World War II by the Allied administration.
a type of economy in which it’s goods are produced mainly for export rather than for domestic use.
Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in Western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960s.
a key issue in the feminist movement
An international oil cartel originally formed in 1960. Represents the majority of all oil produced in the world. Attempts to limit production to raise prices. It’s long name is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations; an association of nations dedicated to economic and political cooperation in southeastern Asia and who joined with the United States to fight against global terrorism.
North American Free Trade Agreement; a trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
non-governmental organizations, such as Red Cross and Greenpeace.
Domination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy or by economic or technological superiority.
the means by which a culture makes individuals follow its rules- everyone was forced to conform and follow the norms or were considered outcasts.