Chapter 6 – Understanding Concepts

When people hear a sound, their ears turn the vibrations in the air into neural messages from the auditory nerve, which makes it possible for the brain to interpret the sound. This process is called _________.
a) encoding
b) storage
c) retrieval
d) evaluation
A
Correct. Encoding starts with sensory processing and sending the information to the brain.
When someone looks at an image, the retina turns the light rays from it into neural messages that go up to the optic nerve so the brain can interpret them. This process is called _________.
a) encoding
b) storage
c) retrieval
d) evaluation
A
Correct. Encoding is necessary for interpretation, as the information must be sent to the brain.
In the levels-of-processing model of memory, information that gets processed at a _________level (such as accessing the meaning of a word or phrase) is more likely to be retained longer and form a stronger memory than information that is processed at a _________ level (such as the visual characteristics of a word).
a) deeper; shallower
b) shallower; deeper
c) higher; lower
d) lower; higher
A
Correct. According to the levels-of-processing model, deeper processing results in better memory, whereas shallower processing results in poorer memory.
According to the levels of processing model, we are most likely to remember information that we process at a _________ level.
a) deeper
b) medium
c) shallower
d) any of these, depending on the information
A
Correct. According to the levels-of-processing model, deeper processing results in better memory, whereas shallower processing results in poorer memory.
In the _________ model, memory is seen as a simultaneous process, with the creation and storage of memories taking place across a series of networks “stretched” across the brain.
a) levels-of-processing
b) parallel distributed processing
c) transfer-appropriate processing
d) information-processing
B
Correct. The parallel distributed processing model is seen as a simultaneous process involving a network.
Believers in the information-processing model of memory are likely to agree that _________.
a) the brain has nothing in common with a computer
b) studying computers can give you useful insights into human information processing
c) auditory information is retained in the sensory register for up to 2 seconds
d) information flows from one memory system to the next
B
Correct. Computers serve as a model for cognitive psychologists.
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Which model of memory is most similar in conceptualization to the way computers function?
a) Craik and Lockhart’s model
b) extinction
c) information-processing model
d) parallel distributed processing model
C
Correct. The information-processing model of memory uses the way a computer functions as its model for human thought.
Why did research participants in Sperling’s experiment recall so few letters stored in sensory memory?
a) They stopped paying attention after a few stimuli.
b) Proactive interference reduced the effectiveness of recall.
c) The stress of participating in this research became excessive.
d) The remaining stimuli quickly faded from sensory memory.
D
Correct. The stimuli faded quickly before they could be read.
Which of the following might be the most appropriate analogy for eidetic imagery?
a) a table
b) a modem
c) a rainbow
d) a photograph
D
Correct. Yes, it’s like a picture and is sometimes called photographic memory.
What is one of the real-world uses of iconic storage?
a) It is where photographic memories are kept.
b) It is the process that covers up the disruption that would occur from saccades.
c) It increases depth of processing.
d) None of these are correct.
B
Correct. It does help with disruption and serves as an input to later memory systems.
Iconic memory is to echoic memory as _________.
a) implicit is to explicit
b) auditory is to visual
c) visual is to auditory
d) quick is to slow
C
Correct. Iconic memory refers to the visual sensory memory, while echoic memory refers to auditory sensory memory.
If one wants to increase the capacity of short-term memory, more items can be held through the process of _________.
a) chunking
b) decoding
c) rote rehearsal
d) data compression
A
Correct. More items can be held through chunking, a process whereby bits of information are combined into meaningful units so that more information can be held.
_________ rehearsal results in a more lasting memory and promotes the transfer of information to long-term memory, as compared to _________ rehearsal.
a) Permanent; condensed
b) Condensed; permanent
c) Elaborative; maintenance
d) Maintenance; elaborative
C
Correct. Elaborative rehearsal leads to longer-lasting memories than does maintenance rehearsal, because the deeper the processing, the better the memory.
The portion of memory that is more or less permanent is called _________.
a) primary memory
b) working memory
c) eidetic memory
d) long-term memory
D
Correct. Long-term memory is more or less permanent.
The best analogy for the way long-term memory is conceptualized would be a_________.
a) revolving door
b) filing cabinet
c) desktop
d) television
B
Correct. Long-term memory can be thought of as a huge filing cabinet in which items are stored in an organized manner.
If one wanted to use the best method to get storage into long-term memory, one would use _________.
a) maintenance rehearsal
b) rote rehearsal
c) elaborative rehearsal
d) sleep learning
C
Correct. The best method is elaborative rehearsal, as it makes you engage the material at a deeper level.
Which type of long-term memory is most difficult to bring into conscious awareness?
a) episodic memory
b) nondeclarative memories
c) declarative memories
d) semantic memory
B
Correct. Nondeclarative memory, such as how to tie shoes, is unconscious.
Declarative memories are to _________ memories as nondeclarative memories are to _________ memories.
a) implicit; explicit
b) explicit; implicit
c) general knowledge; personal facts
d) personal facts; general knowledge
B
Correct. Nondeclarative memories are to implicit memories as declarative memories are to explicit memories.
Declarative memories are to _________ memories as nondeclarative memories are to _________ memories.
a) implicit; explicit
b) explicit; implicit
c) general knowledge; personal facts
d) personal facts; general knowledge
B
Correct. Nondeclarative memories are to implicit memories as declarative memories are to explicit memories.
Long-term memory is thought to be organized in the form of _________.
a) semantic networks or nodes of related information spreading out from a central piece of knowledge
b) conditioned responses and associations
c) alphabetical lists of semantic concepts, time-based lists of life events, body part-specific motor skills
d) none of these
A
Correct. Long-term memory is thought to be organized in the form of semantic networks or nodes of related information spreading out from a central piece of knowledge.
The Internet, with its series of links from one site to many others, is a good analogy for the organization of _________.
a) short-term memory
b) episodic memory
c) long-term memory
d) nondeclarative memory
C
Correct. Long-term memory is organized with links that branch out to other links in a manner similar to the organization of the Internet.
How do retrieval cues help you to remember?
a) They provide inferences.
b) They help chunk information.
c) They provide a stimulus for remembering.
d) They provide numbers for ideas.
C
Correct. Cues help prime your long-term memory to find a specific piece of information that is needed.
Which of the following statements is true of retrieval cues?
a) They are important in helping us remember items stored in longterm memory.
b) They are aids in rote rehearsal in shortterm memory.
c) They can be helpful in both long- and shortterm memory.
d) They have been recently shown to have little effect on the accessibility of information.
A
Correct. Retrieval cues are important in helping us remember items stored in longterm memory. Think of trying to find your keys and trying to remember where you last saw them. That’s how you would use retrieval cues.
“The effectiveness of memory retrieval is directly related to the similarity of cues present when the memory was encoded to the cues present when the memory is retrieved.” What concept does this statement describe?
a) memorability
b) registered learning
c) encoding specificity
d) accessible decoding
C
Correct. Encoding specificity is being described as it refers to the similarity of the learning and testing situation and how it aids performance.
Encoding specificity refers to _________.
a) the increased quality of memory when retrieval conditions are similar to encoding conditions.
b) particular codes, such as Morse code, that transform information into bits
c) the discrete and specific links that occur in a Collins and Quillan network
d) none of these
A
Correct. Encoding specificity refers to using physical surroundings or emotions as retrieval cues for specific memories.
Godden and Baddeley found that if you study on land, you do better when tested on land, and if you study underwater, you do better when tested underwater. This finding is an example of _________.
a) memorability
b) registered learning
c) encoding specificity
d) accessible decoding
C
Correct. Godden and Baddeley’s 1975 finding is an example of encoding specificity.
The research of Eich and Metcalf would suggest that if you were really happy when you were learning math, you should be _________ when taking the math exam to do well.
a) calm
b) nervous
c) happy
d) depressed
C
Correct. You should be happy when taking the final exam for best retrieval because matching moods leads to best retrieval.
Under most circumstances, when you are intentionally trying to remember an item of information, _________ is an easier task than _________.
a) recognition; recall
b) recall; recognition
c) priming; the savings method
d) the savings method; priming
A
Correct. Recognition is an easier task than recall.
False positives occur when a person incorrectly “matches” a stimulus that is merely similar to a real memory to that memory. One major problem with eyewitness testimony is that _________.
a) extinction of auditory memories causes the witness to forget what was said
b) witnesses are prone to habituate to the courtroom and forget what happened
c) false positives can cause eyewitness testimony to be quite inaccurate
d) None of these are true.
C
Correct. False positives can cause eyewitness testimony to be quite inaccurate and innocent people may to go to jail.
As memories get older, they are most likely to _________.
a) get lost
b) become stronger, more accurate, and more vivid
c) be regarded as unreliable by the person using them
d) become changed or altered in some fashion
D
Correct. As memories get older, they are most likely to become changed or altered in some fashion. More new items interfere with them.
Retrieving information from long-term memory is done by assembling information from various brain locations in a process known as _________.
a) consolidation
b) reintegration
c) constructive processing
d) automatic processing
C
Correct. Bits and pieces of information are gathered from various areas of the brain and put back together in a process called constructive processing.
In this view, memories are literally “built” from the pieces stored away at encoding. This view is called _________.
a) constructive processing
b) hindsight bias
c) adaptation of memory traces
d) flashbulb integration
A
Correct. Building memory is constructive processing.
Decay theory works well to explain forgetting in _________.
a) sensory memory only
b) short-term memory only
c) long-term memory only
d) sensory memory and short-term memory
D
Correct. Decay has been proposed to explain forgetting in both sensory memory and short-term memory.
Forgetting in long-term memory is most likely due to _________.
a) interference from other information
b) decay or disuse
c) encoding failure
d) none of these
A
Correct. Forgetting in long-term memory is most likely due to interference from other information.
Proactive interference, as used in the study of memory, refers to when _________.
a) older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information
b) newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information
c) information is not attended to and fails to be encoded
d) information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time
A
Correct. Proactive interference, as used in the study of memory, refers to when older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information.
Retroactive interference, as used in the study of memory, refers to when _________.
a) older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information
b) newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information
c) information is not attended to and fails to be encoded
d) information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time
B
Correct. Retroactive interference, as used in the study of memory, refers to when newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information.
If _________ is like losing a document in the computer because of a power loss, _________ is like pushing the “save” key and having the document disappear instead of being stored.
a) anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia
b) retrograde amnesia, anterograde amnesia
c) adolescent amnesia, conductive amnesia
d) nondeclarative amnesia, implicit amnesia
B
Correct. If retrograde amnesia is like losing a document in the computer because of a power loss, anterograde amnesia is like pushing the “save” key and having the document disappear instead.
Professionals using electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for patients suffering from severe depression have shown that the memory processes of consolidation _________.
a) only take a short time
b) may take months to return
c) may take years to return
d) may take weeks to return
C
Correct. Work with ECT for severe depression suggests that consolidation may take years to be return.
Retrograde amnesia is to anterograde amnesia as _________.
a) mild is to severe
b) severe is to mild
c) remembering old is to learning new
d) remembering new is to learning old
C
Correct. Retrograde amnesia deals with not being able to get old information out of storage.