Chapter 6: Memory

By focusing on the meaning of information, one may better transfer information from STM into LTM by:
Elaborative rehearsal
The __________ can be used to explain how rapidly the points on the semantic network can be accessed.
parallel distributed processing model
All models of memory involve the same __________ processes.
three
“Deep processing” is associated with:
the levels-of-processing model.
Jamie has the ability to look quickly at a page in a book, then focus on a blank piece of paper and “read” the words from the image of the page in the book that still linger in his sensory memory.

Jamie’s ability is an example of:

eidetic imagery.
The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems is called __________.
encoding
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The system of working memory processes information in __________.
short-term span
The most efficient way of transferring short-term memory into long-term memory is by using:
elaborative rehearsal
__________ “fools” STM into holding more information than is usual.
Chunking
Eduardo is watching people walk down the street, and all of a sudden, he asks himself, “Was that man wearing a bright purple suit?” As a result of this thought, he looks back at the man to see if it is true.

Which type of memory is responsible for Eduardo’s behavior?

Iconic
Long-term memory:
has unlimited capacity.
Visual sensory memory is known as __________.
iconic memory.
Short-term memory tends to be encoded primarily in __________.
auditory form
The information-processing model of memory suggests that:
the process of memory storage is similar to the way a computer holds information.
Which of the following is a feature of the storage stage of memory?
Holding information just long enough to work with it.
On the way to the grocery store, James repeats his list to himself—”Bread, milk, butter. Bread, milk, butter….”

James is using:

rote learning
In the information-processing model, the first stage of memory is __________ memory.
sensory
In general, long-term memory is encoded:
in a meaningful form.
The Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) model focuses on:
the connections and timing of the memory processes.
__________ memory is like a giant filing system in which the “files” are individual bits and pieces of memories stored in a highly organized and interconnected fashion.
Long-term
To help students learn new psychology terms, Professor Williams encourages the students to think deeply about the meaning of the words by asking them to provide examples of each term, and to use each one in a sentence.

Professor Williams is using which model of memory?

Levels-of-processing
The __________ assumes that how long a memory will be remembered depends on the stage of memory in which it is stored.
information-processing model
The best way to remember the name of a person you meet at a party is to:
associate the name with something about the person’s appearance.
Donyelle finds that she performs better on the exams that are given in her regular psychology classroom than in the large lecture room that is used to give midterms and finals to several sections at once.

Donyelle’s experience illustrates:

the importance of retrieval cues in memory.
Elizabeth Loftus has suggested that some of the flaws in eyewitness memory may be a result of constructive processing. What does this mean?
This suggests memories are actually reconstructed from the original encoded information and we might unconsciously alter or change memories as we retrieve them so they are consistent with newer information, or by excluding details.
Once you learn how to tie your shoes, the action becomes part of:
procedural memory
Loftus and other researchers have demonstrated that memory:
is a process that constantly changes.
Memories of childhood events, special birthdays or anniversaries, and occurences that an individual experienced on any given day are called __________.
episodic memories
While hypnosis may, in rare cases, make it easier to recall some memories, it also:
makes it easier to create false memories.
One major problem with eyewitness testimony is that __________.
false memories can cause eyewitness testimony to be quite inaccurate
To answer multiple choice or matching questions on your next psychology test, which type of retrieval process will you most frequently use?
Recognition
Which is an example of a recognition task?
A word search puzzle
The constructive processing view says that every time a memory is retrieved, __________.
it may be altered or revised in some way
Stefanie is thinking back to the time she and her family visited Yosemite National Park when she was 12 years old. What type of memory is Stefanie experiencing?
Episodic
Memory for facts are a part of __________ memory because facts are known and can be stated outright.
declarative
The __________ effect suggests that the first and last person interviewed for a job will be better remembered by the interviewer than all the people in the middle.
serial position
What is the best way for a person to overcome the tip of the tongue phenomenon?
Stop trying to remember the information you are trying to retrieve.
An eyewitness was asked to testify in court about her memory of a crime that took place on her street. Prior to her testimony, an attorney provided her with a written statement from another neighbor who also viewed the crime. As a result of reading her neighbor’s statement which was different from her own, the accuracy of her memory was altered, which eventually affected her testimony.

This is an example of:

the misinformation effect.
__________ memory refers to the awareness of the meanings of words, concepts, and terms as well as names of objects, math skills, and so on.
Semantic
Why do flashbulb memories seem so vivid and exact?
Emotional reactions seem to stimulate the release of hormones that have been shown to enhance the formation of long-term memories.
Chris learns her vocabulary words while listening to upbeat, happy music, and is then better able to remember them later if she is happy.

This is called __________.

state-dependent learning
__________ is the tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if the physical surroundings available when the memory is first formed are also available when the memory is being retrieved.
Encoding specificity
Helena lives on a very busy street in New York City. Although she makes no effort to remember how many times cars have passed down her street, when asked, she usually responds “often,” or “a lot.”

Her ability to unconsciously notice how many cars pass down her street is a result of:

Automatic encoding
Memories are more easily accessed when they are stored with more:
retrieval cues
Knowing the names of all United States presidents (in order!) is an example of:
semantic memory
Little Georgie is learning the alphabet. When he recites the alphabet he says “A, B, C, D, W, X, Y, Z.”

This is an example of:

the serial position effect
You walk into a room and know that there’s something you need, but in order to remember it, you have to go back to the room you started in and use your surroundings.

This illustrates:

the importance of retrieval cues in memory.
Without pen, paper or other useful device in hand you decide to assemble your invitation list for a party. One mnemonic strategy you might use to help you remember would be to imagine each person standing at a particular location on the pathway leading from your place of work to your home.

You are using:

the method of loci.
Anterograde amnesia can be caused by:
a concussion
Anna is having a conversation with her 5-year-old daughter, Iris. She and Iris talk about school, friends, and what she will have for dinner tonight. Iris asks if she can have chicken, and Anna says, “I am impressed. Just a few years ago you hated chicken. Remember that?” Iris, looking unsure, indicates that she does not recall.

Which of the following is Iris probably experiencing right now?

infantile amnesia
Aiden was wracking his brain trying to remember, in order, the 12 cranial nerves for his upcoming anatomy test. He decided to borrow the strategy of remembering “On Old Olympus’ Towering Top, A Finn and German Vault and Hop” as a cue to remember each of the nerves (olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, auditory, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal).

Aiden made use of a mnemonic called __________.

acrostic
Early memories before the age of two years tend to be implicit, which may explain:
infantile amnesia
If you move from the United States to England and have trouble adjusting to driving on the left side of the road, you are experiencing:
proactive interference
Explicit memories generally do not originate until we reach 2 to 3 years of age, which is most likely because:
key brain regions such as the hippocampus have reached sufficient maturity.
Ebbinghaus found that forgetting:
is greatest just after learning.
Autobiographical memories:
form when children are able to talk about shared memories with adults.
The __________ is the part of the brain that is responsible for the formation of new long-term declarative memories.
hippocampus
In __________, new long-term declarative memories cannot be formed.
anterograde amnesia
Long-term memories may be inaccessible because:
of interference
Which theory of forgetting involves the idea that physical changes to the brain occur when a memory is made, and if this memory is not used over time it fades away?
Memory trace decay theory
Manny was talking to his friend as he was walking out the door. A few minutes later, Manny asked his friend about the conversation they had few minutes earlier, while walking out the door. Since his friend was not paying attention to him, he could not recall what Manny had said.

Manny’s friend experienced:

encoding failure
The phrase “use it or lose it” refers to which theory of forgetting?
Disuse or Decay
The removal of H. M.’s hippocampus made __________ impossible.
consolidation
Research has found that, in studying, __________ produces the best retrieval.
distributed practice
Ebbinghaus’ __________ shows that forgetting happens quickly, within the first hour after learning the lists, and then tapers off gradually.
curve of forgetting
Ruth was in a car accident which resulted in a head injury. She cannot remember the events that occurred several hours prior to the accident.

Ruth is experiencing:

retrograde amnesia
Research suggests that short-term memories are processed in the __________.
prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and temporal lobe.
Quincy had a terrifying experience in which he was attacked by a dog. The formation of this memory is likely to involve the __________.
amygdala
When a memory is being formed, several changes take place in the brain in a process called __________.
consolidation
Decay is the fading of:
a memory trace
Brenda called Mike while he was in the middle of a meeting to ask him to pick up some milk on his way home from work. When Mike got home he didn’t have the milk, and Brenda was angry.

Mike may have experienced:

encoding failure
Mrs. Tuttle was 97 years old and suffered from severe forgetfulness and mental confusion.

She might be experiencing:

a form of dementia
_________ is the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input.
Selective attention
According to Craik and Lockhart, information that is _______ will be remembered more effectively and for a longer period of time.
deeply processed
Which of the following best describes psychologist John Kihlstrom’s comments when talking about Bartlett’s book on memory?
Memory is more like making up a story than it is like reading a book.
In a study discussed in the textbook that researched the effects of different types of information on memory, subjects viewed a slide presentation of a traffic accident. The actual slide presentation contained a stop sign, but in a written summary of the presentation, the sign was referred to as a yield sign. What were the results of this study?
Subjects who were given misleading information after viewing the slides were far less accurate in their memories for the kind of sign present than were subjects who were given no such information.
A research study found that people who look at real visual images and then are asked to simply imagine looking at visual images:
are often unable later to distinguish between the images they had really seen and the imagined images.
On the Internet, each website has its own specific information but is also linked to many other related sites. In addition, a person can have open more than one site at the same time. This pattern of organization may be very similar to how:
the mind organizes the information stored in long-term memory.
The fact that everyone remembers that George Washington was the first president points to the primacy effect as a result of:
long-term memory storage.
Elizabeth Loftus’ research determined that:
what people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event.
Ebbinghaus’s ________ shows that forgetting happens quickly, within the first hour, and then tapers off gradually.
curve of forgetting
A(n) ________ is a memory expert or someone with exceptional memory ability.
mnemonist
In one study with depressed patients who were being treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), patients were tested for their memory of certain television programs both before and after the treatment. What was the result?
Patients forgot more recent programs but remembered older ones.
Psychologists consider memory to be:
an active system.
In real life, information that has just entered iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information. Research suggests that after ________, old information is replaced by new information.
a quarter of a second
In their original study, which explored how information is stored in long-term memory, Collins and Quillian (1969) asked participants to respond “true” or “false” as quickly as possible to sentences such as “a canary is a bird” and “a canary is an animal.” The results of this study suggest that:
information exists in a kind of network, with nodes of related information linked to each other in a kind of hierarchy.
The ______ can be used to explain how rapidly the points on the semantic network can be accessed.
parallel distributed processing model
Marcia dated Davio for several years. They recently broke up and Marcia went out on a date with a man named Oliver. While on the date, Marcia mistakenly called him Davio. This is an example of:
proactive interference
As opposed to _______ memories, ________ memories are easily made conscious.
implicit; explicit
On the way to the grocery store, James repeats his list to himself—”Bread, milk, butter. Bread, milk butter….” James is using:
maintenance rehearsal
To answer the questions in this test, which type of memory recall will you most frequently use?
recognition