CHAPTER 6 HEALTH AND WELLNESS

According to the CDC and NCHS, the UnitedStates has lowere its infant mortality rate to
0.7% 7 newborns or infants of 1,000 die
The infant mortality rate is hagher than in the white population. Who are they.
Native American, Hispanic and African American populations
Who’s population is twice as high for infant mortality
African Americans
What contributes to one half of all infant deaths
Low birth weight, congenital anomalites, SIDS, and respiratory distress syndrome
What are the two major factors that influence mortality rates
Education and financial resources of the mother.
The number one cause of death in young chilren in American is
Accidental injury
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What is the leading cause of illness in children and can be life threatening.
Asthma
Statistics show that a child is five times more likely to be injured or killed by a
Firearm
What is the second leading cause of death in ages 10-24
Death by fiream
What is the third leading cause of death for ages 25-34
Firearm
the third leading cuse of death by firearm is ages
25-34 years
the second leading cause of death by firame is ages
20-24 years
Obesity is present in at least
one third of the young
Immunizations are available against
Mumps, rubella, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus
What are some of the newer vaccines that are also eliminating illness in children
Vaccines against hepatitis A and B, chickenpox, and the flu.
How many high school students smoke compared with 25% of the general population.
one third
Peer Pressure is strongest in what age group than any other
High School
What is the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for ages 10-24
Motor vechicle accidents
How many young people a day die due to firearms
At least 10 die a day
Death and injury related to firearms cost the US about
$20 Billion a year
What is the second leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults.
Homicide
What is the leading cause of death among African American youth
homicide
The rate for Homicide is _________times higher for African American than for whites
Six
What is the greatest risk factor for death by homicide
Low socioeconomic status
Binge drinking is defined as
having one or alcoholic drinks in one day at least once per month
What is common in high school students and is very common in college students
Weekend binge drinking
what is not metabolized in youn adults as efficiently as in older adults
Alcohol
What is often associated with alcohol consumption.
MVAS, VIOLENT ACTS AND SUICIDES
WHAT IS ALSO A LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH IN HIGHSCHOOL STUDENTS AND COLLEGE STUDENTS
SUICIDE
The ___________sucide rate is half that of the __________population
African American
White
Waht is the second leading cause of death in whites
Suicide
Households with firearms have __________times the number of suicides compared with households without firearm
5 times
Suicide has increased ______% in the last decade with _______% of these death due to
30%
96%
gun use
________ attempt sucide three times as often as ________do
Women
Men
The rate of suicide completion in ________ is much lower than that in ________.
Young women
Young men
Young women who begin dysfunctional eating habits often develop eating disorders between the ages of
12 and 25 years old.
What is the fifth leading cause of death between the ages of 25 and 44 years of age
HIV
The rate of HIV has increased significantly in __________AND ________ ESPECIALLY ___________.
TEEN AND YOUNG WOMEN
WOMEN OF COLOR
NINETY PERCENT OF hiv CASES IN THIS AGE GROUP ARE TRANSMITTED BY ONLY TWO METHODS,
HETEROSEXUAL INTERCOURSE AND
THE SHARING OF NEEDLES
Pregancy occurs most often to women in their
20,s
The maternal and infant morbidity risks are significantly higher in
Teenage mothers and
women over the age of35
What increases the chance of preterm birth by 25%.
cocaine use
What rank as the top causes of adult deaths in the United States
Heart disease and cancer
How many people die each year from heart related problems
a million people
What precentage of the population have hypertension
A Full 25 % In adults over the age of 70 the percentage rises to 64%
Hypertension can lead to
Stoke and Heart attack. Kidney damage often results
The incidence of hypertension is equal in men and women although it is more common in
African Americans especially MEN
Many lifestyle factors increase the risk for hypertension.
Women-who smoke and take birth control
Alof lack of physical activity, excess body weight use of alcohol and high salt intake.
diabetes mellitus is increasing in all age groups with an incresae of about
600% in the last decade of the 20th century
How many people in the United States have diabetes mellitus.
16 Million Peopld
Diabetes costs the US about
$100 billion annually
The money medicare spends for people with diabetes is
one fouth of their money
What is the largest cause of kidney failure, blindness, and limb amputation in the United States
Diabetes
The incidence of diabetes is higher in
african Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans and Asian Americans
Men’s health issues include the number 1 and 2 killers which are
Heart disease and Cancer
Heart disease and Heart attacks kils
500,000 men in the US each year
What is three times more likely in males than in females
CANCER
WHAT MEN ARE AT A HIGHER RISK OF HEART DISEASE AND HYPERTENSION
aFRICAN aMERICAN MEN . A 47% higher rate than that foun in white men
The Most common cancer in men is
Prostate and lung cancer
Lung Disease, suicides and Alzheimer’s disease are less common in
African American than in white Americans
What is the third leading cause of death in men
Accidents
Who is 2.5 times more likely to die in Motor vehicle
Adult Men especially men aged15-24
FIVE TIMES MORE LIKELY
WHAT TYPE OF CANCER IS MOST COMMONLY FOUND IN AMERICAN MEN AND MORE COMMONLY FOUND IN aFRICAN aMERICAN MEN
PROSTRATE CANCER
WHAT TYPE OF TES IS USED AS A SCREENING TOOL AND TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TREATMENT AFTER CANCER IS DIAGNOSED
PSA =PROSTATE – SPECIFIC ANTIGEN TEST
WHAT SHOULD MEN SELF EXAMINE FOR
TESTICULAR CANCER
HOW MANY MEN IN THE UNITED STATES ARE DIAGNOSED WITH TESTICULAR CANCER
7,100 MEN
WHAT IS OSTEROPOROSIS
LOSS OF BONE DENSITY
WHAT IS THE MOST PREVALENT BONE DISEASE IN THE WORLD AND CAUSES MORE THAN ON MILLION FRACTURES OF THE HIP SPINE AND WRIST YEARLY IN THE UNITED STATES
OSTEOPOROSIS
wHEN DOES THIS HAPPIN IN WOMEN. THE LOSS OF THE ESTROGENIC HORMONES SPEEDS BONE DENSITY LOSS WHICH AFFECTS 60-70 % OF ALL
Postmenopausal women.
Women lose ________density and have ________as many fractures as men do
Bone
twice
Osteoporosis is higher in
White and Asian American women than any other races.
What affect 10% of the wome between ages 45-64 after the age 65 the incidence rises to 25%
Cardiovascular disease
What causes 45 % of deaths among all women and becomes the leading cause of death by age 65
Cardiovascular disease
Women who lack _________are also at a higher risk for developing osteoporosis
Calcum, lack of exercise, smoking
what not leads the mortalitly rat due to cancer in women
smoking
Baseline mammograms are recommended
every 1 to 2 years until after the age 50
after the age 50 annlual mammogram is recommended
The major causes of death in the older population are
heart disease, cancer, stroke, COPD, pneumonia and influenza
Who is more likely than for any other age group to commit suicide
Older adults
Alzheimer’s disease is among the 10 leading causes of death of those ove the age of
65 years.
Etiology
mean cause
Disease are classified in several way. Usually, they are classified according to their
Etiology (Cause)
a diseae is classified as
Organic or Functional
Organic diseaseeee
means that detectable structural change has occurred in one or more organs that also alters usual function
Functional disease
is a disorder in which a structural cause cannot be identified. The person, however experiences changes that affect his or her ability to condut the usual activities of daily living
Dysfunctional
The person is said to be dysfunctional if he or she cannot perform usual activities
Hereditary
genetic disorder ot an embryo resulting in the child’s physical impairment.
Hemophilia(prolonged blood clotting time is a hereditary disorder transmitted from
from mother to child usually a male child. appears most on x chromosomes /the mother is the carrier, but generally free of symtoms
congenital Disorders
are also present at birth. UNLIKE HEREDITARY. cogenital disorder may ge genetic or ma be caused by another unfavorable condition that affects normal fetal development.
A common cause of disease is invasion of the body by microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses or by animal parasites The microscopic invasion is called
Infection
Some infection are local, which means
the area of invasion is limited to one area or organ
Infections that invole the whold body
Systemic
Microorganisms that cause infections may or may not be CONTAGIOUS
which means the infection can be from one person to another
DFICIENCY DISEASES ARE
DISORDERS OF NUTRITION THAT RESULT FROM A LACK OF ONE OR MORE DIETARY NUTRIENTS, EXAMPLE LACK OF VITAMIN C
iF THE BODY DOES NOT USE NUTRIENTS PROPERLY
MALABSORPTION SYNDROME, VARIOUS DISORDERS RESULTS
An immunodeficiency syndrom caused by HIV/AIDS is often manifested in the body by
infections, maligancies and neurologic disease
a disturbance of one or more of endocrine glands cause
metabolis disorders
WHAT SECRETE HOMONES THAT REGULATE BODY PROCESSES
ENDOCRINE GLANDS
wHAT AFFECTS THE RATE OF METABOLISM FOR THE ENTIRE BODY, AND INSULIN DEFICIENCY RESULTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS
THYROID HORMONE
DYSFUNCTION OCCCURS FROM
HYPERSECRETION TOO MUCH) OR HYPOSECRETON (TOO LITTLE)OF A HORMONES
NEOPLASTIC
THE GROWTH OF ABNORMAL TISSUE OR TUMOR
TUMORS CAN BE
BENIGN OR MALIGNANT
BENIGN TUMOR
RESULT FROM GROWTH OF CELLS SIMILAR TO THE TISSUE IN WHICH IT APPEARS. iT IS OFTEN SURROUNDED BY A CAPSULE. ONCE REMOVED THE TUMOR USUALLY DOES NOT RECUR. IT IS NOT DANGEROUS UNLESS IT CROWDS OTHER STRUCTURES OR ROBS SURROUNDING TISSUES OF THEIR BLOOD SUPPLY
MALIGNANT TUMOR
IS A WILD AND ISORDERLY GROWTH OF CELLS THAT IS UNLIKE THE FISSUE FROM WHICH IT ARISES. tHIS CELL GROWTH ROBS NORMAL TISSUES OF NUTRIENTS.
METASTASIS
MALIGNANT CELLS TEND TO SPREAD TO OTHER PARTS OF THE BODY
TRAUMATIC INJURIES
ARE THOSE INJURIES CAUSED BY EXTTERNAL FORCES (AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT
wHAT OCCUPATIONAL GROUP CONSTITUE 205 OF DEATHS DUE TO OCCUPATIONAL CAUSES
CONSTRUCTION WORKERS