Son of Pacal, Mayan king; Mayan king; performed blood letting ritual.
An ethnic minority speaking Mayan languages and living in Yucatan and adjacent areas.
This early civilization included Mexico and Central America and it was based on sedentary agriculture and the cultivation of corn and food production.
Bering land bridge
A strip of land that connected Eurasia and North America. It is significant because it brought over the first people to America. They are the native people that the British run into when they discover the new world. Without the land bridge, America would have been inhabited much later. This land bridge was there 25,000 years ago during the ice age. The ice age made that bridge exposed and after the ice age, it became covered.
Became the staple food of the Mesoamerica region. Still eaten today and is yellow.
These were grown around 4,000 B.C.E. and it is still eaten today. It is red and can be green.
Gulf of Mexico
An arm of the Atlantic south of the United States and east of Mexico.
Olmecs (“the rubber people”)
(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization, lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.
Jade and Obsidian
Carved stones that were traded between the Olmec and eastern civilizations.
The earliest heirs of the Olmecs that created a remarkable society in the region now occupied by southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador.
A powerful city-state in central Mexico (100-75 C.E.). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600.
A precious commodity consumed mostly by nobles in Maya society.
A ruined Mayan city of northern Guatemala. It was the largest of the Mayan cities and may also be the oldest. The most important Maya political center between the 4th-9th centuries. It was a city that had temples, pyramids, palaces, and public buildings.
Temple of the Giant Jaguar
A stepped pyramid rising sharply to a height of 47 meters (154 feet); dominated the skyline and represented Tikal’s control over the surrounding region.
A person who is killed as part of a religious ritual.
An ancient Mayan city located on the Yucatan Peninsula.
Reflected a powerful urge to identify meaningful cycles of time and to understand human events in the context of those cycles. It consisted of two kinds of years, a solar year that consisted of 365 days for agriculture, and a ritual year for daily affairs.
It was both ideographic and syllabic. There were inscriptions on temples and monuments and Spaniard invasions led to destruction of all the books.
Mayan creation epic.
A ritual performed in Maya and Aztec civilizations where people would cut themselves in a process that allowed them to sacrifice their blood to a specific god.
Maya ball game
Mayans used the game in order to negotiate politically. Losers would sometimes be sacrificed
Pyramid of the Sun
Pyramid found in ancient Teotihuacan, it was 200-feet tall and had a base larger than that of the Great Pyramid in Egypt.
Hunting and gathering peoples had made their way across the narrow isthmus of Central America and into this continent.
The largest mountain range in the world. Home of the Chavin and Inca civilizations.
Llamas and alpacas
These animals were hunted by the people who migrated into the region of the northern and central Andes Mountains. These animals were used for wool and meat of early Andeans.
The Chavin Cult
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills. Maize was major cash crop. No religious or political evidence.
A society in the Andean valleys, near the Moche River. Left behind a remarkable artistic legacy. They made ceramics that represented gods and everyday life.
Flows from the foothills of the Andes to the Pacific Ocean.
Term referring to the Pacific Ocean basin and its lands.
Australia and New Guinea
Human migrants reached this continent and country long before any people had begun to cultivate crops or keep herds of domesticated animals.
Bismark Archipelago and Solomon Islands
The hunting and gathering peoples ventured to these islands during the era when the seas were low and sailing distances from New Guinea were consequently very short.
Hunting and gathering in Australia
Small, mobile, migrational communities. Planted fruits, berries, roots, nuts, seeds, and green leaves. Alice Springs(central Australia) included about 20 species of greens and seeds and nuts (as medicines, ointments, and drugs). Hunting: axes, spears, clubs, nets, lassos, snares, and boomerangs.
New Guineans foraged for food until trade with these people began.
Agriculture in New Guinea
Cultivation of root crops and the herding of animal. Yams, taro, pigs, and chickens to the island. Indigenous peoples began to cultivate crops and keep animals. Agriculture: population growth and specialization of labor. After the change to agriculture, permanent settlements, pottery, and carefully crafted tools appeared. Torres Strait
Austronesian-speaking peoples. Maritime and agriculture (islands of the Pacific Ocean). Canoes with twin hulls joined by a deck. Agricultural societies: food crops and domesticated animals. Coastal settlements in New Guinea
Vanuatu (New Hebrides) and New Caledonia
By about 1,500 B.C.E. Austronesian mariners had arrived at these islands.
An island in the south Pacific that the Austronesian mariners settled at during the late centuries of the first millennium B.C.E.
Hawaii, Easter Island, and New Zealand
The Austronesian mariners launched ventures that took them to these most remote outposts of Polynesia which required them to sail over thousands of nautical miles of blue water.
Voyage of Ru
Built a boat and traveled to populate a new land.
Language spoken today in Madagascar, one branch of Austronesian languages.
4th largest island in the world.
The earliest Austronesian migrants to sail out into the Pacific Ocean and establish settlements in Pacific islands.