Chapter 52

Organismal ecology
How an organisms features meet challenges posed by its environment
A group of the same species living in an area
Population ecology
Describes factors which affect population size, and how it changes over time
A group of different populations of species which all live in the same area
Community ecology
How interactions between species affect community structure and organization
Community of organisms and abiotic factors living in same area
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Ecosystem ecology
Describes flow and cycling of energy between organisms and their environment
Landscape ecology
Describes factors controlling energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems
Sum of all planets ecosystems and landscapes
Global ecology
Looks at how regional exchange of energy and materials influences the functioning and distribution of organisms across biosphere
Four factors of climate?
Temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and wind
Difference between micro and macro climate
Macro describes patterns on global level, while micro describes localized patterns
What is a biome?
Major life zones characterized by vegetation type or physical environment
What two abiotic factors are most important in determining the distribution of the biome?
Temperature and precipitation
What is the largest biome and how much area does it cover?
Oceans, 75%
Difference between photic and aphotic
Photic describes enough light for photosynthesis to occur, while aphotic means little light penetration
Difference between benthic and pelagic?
Pelagic zone is comprised of photic and aphotic zones, while benthic is at the very bottom of the ocean
Difference between oligotrophic and eutrophic?
Oligotrophic means nutrient-poor, while eutrophic means nutrient rich
Difference between littoral and limnetic zones?
Littoral zone is the shallow and well-lit waters close to shore, and limnetic is deep and further from shore
Zooplankton vs phytoplankton?
Phytoplankton are plants and zooplankton are animals
Neritic vs abyssal?
Neritic is coastal and abyssal is very deep
What role does dispersal play in the study of distribution of species?
Organisms move to areas where they had not previous lived and as a result have to adapt to new features
Name the 5 biotic factors that influence species distribution
Predators, herbivores, food resources, parasites, diseases
How does temperature affect living organisms?
Organisms function best at certain temperatures
How do water and oxygen affect living organisms?
Aquatic animals still need oxygen for gas exchange
How does salinity affect living organisms?
Salinity affects water environments through osmosis.
How does sunlight affect living organisms?
Sunlight creates the energy that drives ecosystems
How do rocks and soil affect living organisms?
Factors in soil including ph, can determine which organisms are capable of living there
What are thermoclines?
Narrow layers of fast temperature changes that separate layers of water.