Chapter 5 (Gender)

One’s biological category, male or female, based on anatomy and physiology.
Sex
The recognition, or internalization, of a biological sex category.
Sexual identity
The social realization of biological sex.
gender
The identification with the social category boy/man or girl/woman.
gender identity
One’s pattern of outward behavior in relation to common standards of a gender category.
gender expression
A condition in which a person’s chromosomal composition doesn’t correspond with his or her sexual anatomy at birth, or the anatomy is not clearly male or female.
intersex
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A term to describe individuals whose gender identity does not match their assigned sex.
transgender
Neither exclusively masculine nor exclusively feminine.
androgynous
The process by which individuals internalize elements of the social structure, making those elements part of their own personality.
socialization
People in a similar social situation and of similar status with whom an individual interacts.
peers
The social expression of biological sex is
gender
The term for the biological category of male and female, based on anatomy and physiology, is
sex
Sex and gender are different in that
gender refers to the social role based on one’s categorical sex.
When a person’s chromosomal composition does not correspond with his or her sexual anatomy, it is known as
intersex
The situation in which one’s gender identity and assigned sex do not match, perhaps leading to a feeling of being trapped in the wrong body, is known as
transgender
Transgender identities
present a problem for societies like the United States that have a strictly two-gender system
A gender approach in which one is neither exclusively masculine nor exclusively feminine is
referred to as an androgynous approach
Expectations for men’s behavior compared to women’s behavior
support a narrow cultural view of masculinity.
Which of the following is true about the ways that parents treat boys and girls differently?
Mothers spend more time talking to daughters than they do to their sons.
The process by which individuals internalize elements of the social structure, making them part of their own personality, is
socialization
People in a similar social situation and of similar status with whom an individual interacts are known as
peers
When it comes to occupational sex segregation
job screeners might bring their preconceived ideas of gender to the applicant selection process.
Compared to jobs dominated by men, jobs dominated by women
have lower status and lower pay
All are accurate statements about identity EXCEPT
sexual and gender identities always match in adulthood.
Which of the following strategies makes women appear to be the weaker sex?
portraying husbands as taller than their wives
When it comes to biological sex differences
the physical sex differences in humans are small when compared with other species.
The argument that current gender differences arose over time through evolution is most consistent with which perspective on gender?
biological
When researchers say that masculinity is socially constructed, they mean that
there are different perspectives for what it means to be a man, depending on the setting.
Which of the following is NOT supported by religious conservatives?
women having greater authority than men in the home
A primary explanation for the difference between female and male graduation rates in low-income neighborhoods is
girls’ close social connections encourage them to stay in school.
One of the reasons the number of employed women increased rapidly after World War II was because
women obtained more education and wanted to use their degrees
A sexual identity is
assigned to all children at birth.
Gender differences are the product of social interaction that reflects men’s dominant position relative to women. This statement is most consistent with which perspective on gender?
feminist
Which of the following is true about the school performance of boys and girls?
Girls are less likely than boys to pursue careers in math and science.
Which of the following concepts is illustrated by parents purchasing mostly pink items for their daughters
gender socialization
When it comes to sex selection of children, American parents
most commonly prefer one child of each sex.
All of the following are key agents in socializing people to the expected gender roles EXCEPT
1. parents and siblings
2. schoolteachers
3. legal systems
4. peer groups
legal systems
Because sex and gender are so closely linked, genetic predisposition affects the behaviors of men and women. This statement is most consistent with which perspective on gender?
biological
People “do gender” when they enact the social roles that conform to the commonly expected image for their sex. This statement is most consistent with which perspective on gender?
symbolic interactionist
The study of maleness mirrors that of whiteness in that
males and whites were neglected in early research on structured oppression