Chapter 5: Electrons in Atoms

energy levels
each electron has a fixed energy
quantum of energy
the amount of energy needed to move an electron from one energy level to another
lowest energy
closest to the nucleus, higher the energy further away and each level gets closer
quantum mechanical model
determines the allowed energies an electron can have and how likely it is to find the electron in various locations around the nucleus
atomic orbital
region of space where there is a high chance of finding an electron
energy sublevel
each energy sublevel corresponds to an orbital of a different shape, which describes where the electron is likely to be found
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electron configurations
the arrangement of the various orbitals surrounding the nucleus
amplitude
waves height from zero to the rest
wavelength
the distance between two crests
frequency
number of wave cycles, shorter wavelength=high frequency
wavelength and frequency
are inversely proportional to each other
electromagnetic radiation
radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet waves, X-rays, and gamma rays
spectrum
when the different frequencies separate into a spectrum of colors
atoms absorb energy
electrons move into higher energy levels
atoms lose energy
when electrons go to lower energy levels
ground state
lowest possible energy level