A commonly used unit of heat energy; 1 calorie is a quantity of heat energy that will raise the temperature of 1g of water 1° (i.e. from 14.5 to 15.5°C). also 4.184 joules = 1 calorie exactly.
A change producing product that differ in composition from the original substances.
A shorthand expression showing the reactants and the products of a chemical change (i.e. 2H2O = 2H2 + O2).
Properties of a solution that depend on the number of solute particles in solution and not on the nature of the solute (i.e. vapor pressure lowering, freezing point depression, boiling point elevation).
The capacity of matter to do work.
The SI unit of energy.
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Kinetic energy (KE)
The energy that matter possesses due to its motion; KE = ½ mv2.
Law of conservation of energy
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, though it can be transferred from one form to another.
A change in form (such as size, shape, or physical state (i.e. solid to liquid)) without a change in composition.
Inherent physical characteristics of a substance that can be determined without altering its composition: color, taste, odor, state of matter, density, melting point, boiling point.
Potential energy (PE)
Stored energy, or the energy of an object due to its relative position.
A chemical substance produced from reactants by a chemical change.
The characteristics, or traits, of substances that give them their unique identities. Properties are classified as physical or chemical.
A chemical substance entering into a reaction.
The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1g of any substance by 1°C.