Chapter 4: Reaching the Audience

What is an audience-centered speaker?
An audience-centered speaker strives to understand the listeners so that he or she can meet their needs and interests
What is meant by audience analysis and adaptation?
Analysis means finding out exactly who the listeners are and what they know. Adaptation means shaping a speech to satisfy the listeners’ particular needs and interests.
How can a speaker get advance information about an audience?
Interview the program director, talk to a few prospective listeners, or send a questionnaire to the future audience
What are taboos, and why are they an important concern for a speaker?
Taboos are prohibitions in a culture; violating them can offend an audience.
Do international audiences usually prefer a presentation that is humorous and informal, or one that is serious and formal?
International audiences usually prefer a serious, formal tone. An informal approach is often viewed as frivolous and disrespectful
What is ethnocentrism?
The belief that one’s own cultural group is superior to other groups
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Who is the best source of information about the needs of listeners with disabilities, and why?
The disabled listener—because he or she knows best what accommodations need to be made
What approach should you take if listeners have an unfavorable attitude toward your speech goal?
Try to win listeners to your position, but if this fails, be content to at least move them closer to your view
What guidelines should be followed for a speech to an audience that knows little or nothing about your topic?
(1) Limit the number of new ideas, (2) If possible, use visual aids, (3) Use down-to-earth language, (4) Repeat key ideas, and (5) Give vivid examples
What might happen if you give a speech that is different from the one the audience was expecting?
Some members of the audience might be disappointed, even angry