Chapter 4 AP Psych

environment
every external influence, from maternal nutrition while in the womb to social support while nearing the tomb

nuture part of nurture and nature

behaviour geneticists
study our differences and weight the effects and interplay of heredity and environment

explores the genetic and environmental roots of human difference

Genes
biochemical units of heredity

segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein

small segment of the giant DNA molecule
expressed of inactive

environmental events turn on these genes, and when turned on, genes provide code for creating protein molecules- body’s building block

traits are influenced by this
intelligence, happiness, aggressiveness
—–self regulating

rather than acting as blueprints, genes react (to experiences cues), genes interact (environments trigger gene activity and genetically influenced traits evoke significant responses in others)

evocative interactions
genetically influenced traits evoke significant responses in others

identical twins in different families recall parent’s warmth similarly

fraternal twins in same family recall childhood differently

how to scientifically test apart influences of environment and heredity
1.- control home environment while varying heredity
2.- control heredity while varying home environment
identical twin qualification
same genes, but not always the same number of copies of those genes
—–helps explain why 1 twin is more at risk to illness than the other

most share a placenta but ⅓ sets have 2 separate placenta
—–1 may be bigger than the other- contribute to difference between them

fraternal twin
separate dizygotic fertilized eggs

share a fetal environment

genetically no more similar than ordinary brothers and sisters

identical twin behaviours
if one twin has alzheimer’s, 60% other does
—–fraternal twin- 30% risk

neuroticism (emotional instability) and extraversion is more similar in identical twins

if one fraternal twin has a divorce, 1.6 times more likely to get divorced than if your twin was not divorced
—–5.5 times in identical twins
—–so divorce risks are about 50% attributable to genetic factors

treated more alike
—–and even if treated differently, they are still psychologically alike

separated twins overview
similarities in tastes, physical attributes, personality- characteristics patterns in thinking, feeling, acting, abilities, attitudes, interests, fears

separated twins are more alike if genetically identical than if fraternal

separations after birth do not amplify personality differences

similarities still hold true if they were raised together or not

keep in mind: plural anecdote is not data
—–control: 2 random people with similar age, sex, ethnicity, economic and cultural background
—–but separate fraternal twins do not exhibit similarities compared to identical twins

what clouds separated twin data
reunion of twins before tested

identical twins share appearance and responses it evokes

adoption agencies tend to place separated twins in similar homes

despite criticism, helps shift scientific thinking toward greater appreciation of genetic influences

adoption’s 2 groups
environment relatives
—–adoptive parents and siblings

genetic relatives
—–biological parents and siblings

so are adopted kids more like their parents or their biological ones?

finding of adoption;s experimental
related or not, people who grow up together don’t resemble one another in personality

extraversion, agreeableness- adoptees are more like biological parents

the environment shared by a family’s children has no impact on their personalities

2 adopted children in similar home= not more likely to be similar in personality

why are children of the same family so different?
don’t know yet
adoptive parenting
minimal shared environment effect, but makes adoption still okay

genes may limit family environment’s influence on personality

but parents still influence children’s
—–attitudes, values, manners, faith and politics

pair of adopted children/identical twins will
—–especially in adolescence, have more similar religious beliefs if reared together

child neglect, abuse and parental divorce are rarer
—–adoptive parents are carefully screened

adopted kids
adoptive children thrive

⅞ feel attached a lot to adoptive parents

kids score higher on intelligence tests than biological parents

grow up to be more self giving and caring than average

more happier and more stable adults

regardless of personality difference between parents and adoptive, most children benefit from adoption

temperament
person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

hereditarily predisposed

emotional excitability

some infants are more reactive, intense, fidgety

others are easygoing, quiet, placid

types of babies
difficult, easy, slow to warm up
difficult babies
more irritable, intense, unpredictable
easy babies
cheerful, relaxes, predictable in feeding and sleeping
slow to warm up infants
resist or withdraw from new people and situations

temperament differences persist

babies emotion reflecting emotions in later life
most emotionally reactive newborns tend to be most reactive 9 month old

exceptionally inhibited 2 year olds will be still shy at 8, and be introverted adolescents

intense preschoolers- intense young adults
—–remain reactive, impulsive, aggressive, conflict-prone

genetic effect on bodies
genetic effects appear in physiological differences

anxious babies- highly variable, reactive nervous system

new/strange situation- more physiologically aroused

one gene that regulates serotonin predisposes a fearful temperament in combination with unsupporting caregiving, and inhibited child

biologically rooted temperament help form personality

molecular genetics
seeks to identify specific genes influencing behaviour

“bottom-up”

goal: to find some of the many genes that together make traits like body weight, secual orientation and extraversion

studies molecular structure and function of genes

genes and traits
most human traits are influenced by genes

heredity influences weight, but no single obesity gene

some genes influence how quickly you feel full

others say how much fuel muscle needs, calories burnt by fidgeting, body converts calories into fat

genetic test and disease
can reveal at-risk populations for diseases

researchers are looking for genes that put people at risk for genetically influenced disorders like learning disability, depression, schizophrenia, alcohol dependence

to tease out genes, molecular geneticists find families with disorders in several generations
—–draw blood, or take cheek swabs from both affected and unaffected family members
—–examine DNA , looking for difference
—–potential of DNA- predict risk so steps can be taken to prevent them

prenatal screening
can give potential parents readout of features genes from normal pattern

ethical dilemmas
—–lead to discrimination
—–selective abortions – millions of missing women

heritability
extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to differing genes

proportion of variance among individuals that we can attribute to genes

heritability of a trait may depend on range of populations and environments

only means that differences among people are attributable to their genes

those who study this try to determine how much of our individual variation in that trait is form our genes

heredity and environment
heredity becomes more important as environments become more similar

source of differences- become important

differences due to environment decrease as heritability would increase
—–if all schools, families, neighborhoods were the same

heritability will be lower if
—–all people has similar heredities but raised in drastically different environments

genetic differences to groups
can’t extend group differences

but can explain individual differences

heritable individual differences do not imply heritable group differences

adaption
biological mechanism that enables our developed diversity
epigenetics
new field studying the molecular mechanisms by which environments trigger genetic expression

genes have the potential to influence development, environmental triggers can switch them on or off

epigenetic mark-
organic methyl molecule attached to part of DNA strand, instructs cell to ignore any gene present in that DNA stretch, preventing DNA from producing protein coded by that gene
—–regulates gene expression

environmental factors like diet, drugs and stress can affect the epigenetic molecules

people who committed suicide exhibit the same epigenetic effect they suffered from child abuse

Nature and nurture
nature via nurture
Evolutionary Psychologists
focus on what makes us so much alike as humans

study of evolution of behaviour and the mind, using principles of natural selection

use darwin’s natural selection to understand the roots of behaviour and mental processes

shows us how we came to be, and not necessarily how we ought to be

can’t explain same sex attraction or suicide

natural selection
varied offspring compete for survival

certain biological and behavioural variation increase their reproductive and survival chances in their environment

offspring survive- more likely to pass genes

over time, population characteristics ,au change

interaction
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor such as environment, depends on another factor, such as heredity
fox experiment
wildfox- weary, unfriendly

Russian DMitry Belyaev and lyudmila trut wanted to find how human ancestors domesticated dogs

started with 30 males, 100 females
from offspring, took the tamest 5% of males and 20% of females

after more than 30 generations, 40 years, 45,000 foxes later, bred foxes that were domesticated

poor research institute sold the foxes as house pets

traits selected
traits that are selected confer a reproductive advantage on an individual or species will prevail

animal breeding experiments manipulate genetic selection

breed animals to be different things

success enhancing genes are selected
—–those whose mating helped them reproduce
—–women who were predisposed to avoid bitter foods (often toxic to baby development)

mutations
random errors in gene replication
human shared behavioral and biological similarities
arise from shared human genome

our common genetic profile

no more than 5% of our genetic differences among humans are from population group differences

95% of genetic variation- exists within populations

what if everybody dies except for 2 villages in kenya and iceland?
typical genetic differences between 2 icelandic villagers or between 2 kenyans is much greater than the average difference between the 2 groups

so if only icelanders or kenyans survive, the human species would only suffer a trivial reduction in its genetic diversity

universal moral grammar
across cultures

all respond negatively when asked
—–if a lethal gas is leaking into a vent and headed toward a room with 7 people. is it okay to push someone in a vent, killing 1?

all respond more approvingly when asked
—–is it okay to allow someone to fall into a vnet, again sacrificing one life but saving 7

our shared moral instincts survive from a distant past where direct harm doing was punished

are behaviours are predisposed to do
behave in ways that promoted our ancestor’s surviving and reproducing

but in some ways, we are biologically prepared for a world that no longer exists

we love the taste of sweets and fats which prepared our ancestors surviving and reproducing
—–but we get food from vending machines, stores and fast food outlets
—–famine is rare in the west, so there’s obesity problem
—–our natural dispositions are mismatches with today’s junk food environment

second darwinian revolution
the application of evolutionary principles to psychology
behaviour geneticists and evolutionary psychologist difference
behaviour- interesting in finding differences in our behaviour

evolutionary psychologist- interested in exploring our commonalities

gender
biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female
gender similarities
eat the same food, avoid same predators, perceive learn and remember similarly

only in those domains where we have faces differing adaptive challenges that we differ in, from evolutionary psychologists

the largest gender differences in sexuality
men
—–think more about sex, masturbates more, initiates more sex, and views more pornography

with few exceptions anywhere in the world
—–males are more likely than females to initiate sex

college aged men
—–think that its okay to have sex if 2 people like each other, even if they’ve known each other for a short time
—–enjoying casual sex with different partners

college aged women
—–preferred planned dating

casual impulsive sex is most frequent among males with traditional masculine attitudes

gay couples and lesbian couples
gay men report more interest in uncommitted sex, more responsive to visual sexual stimuli, more concerned with their partner’s looks than do lesbian women

gay couples have more sex than lesbian

more lesbians than gays got married after 1st year of vermont’s same sex unions
—–even though men were ⅔ of the gay population

men and women’s sexuality
more women than men cited affection as a reason for 1st intercourse

more men than women thought of sex everyday or several times a day

men have lower threshold for perceiving warm responses as a sexual come-on

more men that women attribute a woman’s friendliness to sexual interest

misattributing women’s cordiality as a come-on explains men’s greater sexual assertiveness

why women’s approach to sex is more relational and men’s recreational
while a women incubates and nurses one infant at a time, a male can spread his genes through other females

out natural yearnings are our gene’s way of reproducing themselves

women pair wisely, men pair widely

what do straight men find attractive in a mate
woman’s youthful appearance, cross place and time

men are drawn to healthy, fertile appearing women
—–smooth skin and youthful shape stood a better chance of sending their genes into the future

men like women whose waists are ⅓ narrower than their hips
—–future sign of fertility

men like women at fertile age
—–why teen boys like women several years older
—–why men in mid twenties prefer women of same age
—–why older men prefer younger women

what do straight women find attractive in a mate
prefer stick-around dads

attracted to men who seem mature, dominant, bold, affluent, potential for long term mating and investment in joint offspring

men rated women as equally attractive in poor cars and expensive cars
—–but women found men in expensive car more attractive

women chose which men like looking at baby pictures
—–and rated them as higher potential long term mates
—–those show a man’s capacity to support and protect a family

how do evolutionary psychologists explain gender differences in sexuality
they theorize that women that have inherited their ancestors tendencies to be cautious sexually, because of the challenges associated with being pregnant and raising children

men have inherited inclination to be more casual about sex, because their act of fathering requires a smaller investment

what are 3 main criticisms of evolutionary explanation of human sexuality
1- its starts with an effect (such as the gender sexuality difference) and works backward to propose an explanation

2- unethical and immoral men could use these explanations to rationalize their behaviour toward women
—–can be used to explain why rich men marry many young fertile women

3- this explanation may overlook the effects of cultural and socialization
—–cultures with a lot of gender inequality show men desiring youth and domestic skill in women and women seeking status and money
—–cultures with gender equality in smaller gender differences in mate preferences

men and women difference summary
far more alike than different

humans have a great capacity for learning and social progress

cultures cary, cultures change,and cultural expectations can bend the genders

socialised to value longlife commitment partner- sexually bond with one partner

socialised to accept casual sec, women may have many partners

what evolutionary psychologists have predicted and confirmed
we tend to favor others to the extent they share our genes or can later return our favors

human memory should be well suited to retaining survival relevant information
—–food location, which females exhibit superiority

many male and female mating strategies

genes and brains
genes dictate our overall brain architecture

but experience fills in the details, developing neural connections and preparing our brain for thought and language and other later experiences

rats living in enriched environment, which stimulates a natural environment, usually developed a heavier and thicker brain cortex
——after 60 days in enriched environments, the rat’s brains weights increased 7-10% and number of synapses increased 20%

stimulations of touch or massage benefited rats and premature babies
——develop faster neurologically and gain weight more rapidly for both

pruning process
our experiences trigger this after brain maturation provides us with an abundance of neural connections

sights, smells. touches and tugs activate and strengthen connections

unused neural pathways weaken

popular tracks are broadened and less traveled ones gradually disappear

the result by puberty is a massive loss of unemployed connections

early childhood learning
while excess connections are still on call

can easily master skills as grammar and accent of another language

lack exposure to language before adolescence, a person will never master any language

lashing visual experience during early years. those whose vision is restored by cataract removal never achieve normal perception
——brain cells normally assigned to vision have died or been diverted to other uses

brain’s maturing rule
use it or lose it
do parents matter on children
matter. power of parenting is clearest at the extremes
——abused children become more abusive
——neglected ones become neglectful
——loved but firmly handled who become self confident and socially competent

power of family environment appears in remarkable academic and vocational success

personality of a child
shared environmental influences from the womb onward account for less than 10% of the children’s difference

2 children in the same family are personality wise as different from one another as are pairs of children selected randomly

kids are not easily sculpted by parental nurture

peer influence
preschoolers who don’t like food will eat it if everyone else in the group like it

kids will adopt accent of peers, not parents of a language
——accent reflect culture, and children get culture from peers

those who smoke have friends who smoke

selectional effect
kids seek out peers with similar attitudes and interests

those who smoke may select friends who also smoke

Howard gardner on parents and peers effect on a kid
parents are more important in
——education, discipline, responsibility, orderliness, charitableness, ways of interacting with authority figures

peers are more important in
——learning cooperation, dinding road to popularity, inventing styles of interaction among people of the same age

will look for parents when contemplating future

parents choose the neighborhood and schools that supply peers
——this power gives parents an ability to influence the culture that shapes the child’s peer group

culture
behaviours, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted to the next

human nature seems designed for culture

we are social animals but culture is a better way of being social

culture supports our species survival and reproduction by enabling social and economic systems that give us an edge

transmit customs and beliefs that enable us to communicate, to exchange money for things, to play, to eat, to drive with agreed upon rules

other animals and culture
primates have local customs of tool use, grooming, courtship

younger chimps and macaque monkeys sometimes invent customs and pass them onto peer and offspring

but human culture does more

culture’s two parts
preservation of innovation and division of labor
preservation of innovation
thanks to our mastery of language

culture;s accumulated knowledge

norms
each culture develops it

an understood rule for accepted and expected behaviour

norms prescribe “proper” behaviour

sometimes social expectations seem oppressive

but norms help free us from self preoccupation

when cultures collide, differing norms often get confused
——should you shake hands or kiss each cheek
——answer depends on each culture

culture shock
when we don’t understand what’s expected or accepted

differing paces of life and differing sense of punctuality

variation of culture over time
cultures also vary and compete for resources

america since the 1960
——middle class people fly to places they only once read about
——air conditioned house
——online shipping
——electronic communication
——doubled income
——eating out 2x as much
——many minority groups have expanded human rights
——greater economic independence, so today’s women marry more for love and endure less abusive relationships

bad changes
——more divorce and depression
——spend more hours at work
——fewer house with friends and family and sleep

changes at really fast speed

can’t explain the changes by changes in human gene pool, which evolves too slowly

individualism
giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals

defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification

white people except for east europe

great deal of identity will remain intact-if they were solitary refugees stripped of social connection

share the need to belong, so join groups but less focused on group harmony and doing duty in group

more easily move in and out of groups

free to switch jobs, place of worship, leave extended families and move to places

marriage is for a long as both shall love

people here have more individual freedom, less geographically bound to family, more privacy

prefer unusual names

more lonely, higher divorce and homicide rates, more stress related disease

demands for more romance and personal fulfillment in marriage- subject relationship to more pressure

increased strikingly over the last century in western cultures

individualism and collectivist
there is still diversity within cultures

even in most individualistic countries, some people manifest collectivist values

within many countries, there are distinct cultures related to one’s religion, economic status and region

become apparent in winning medal
——“i stay focus” vs “thank you to my coach, my manager, my support”

apparent in describing friends
——westerners- adjectives
——east asians- verbs that describe behaviours in context

collectivism
giving priority to goals of one’s group
——often one’s extended family or work group

defining one’s identity accordingly

greater loss of identity if a person is a refugee in a foreign land

cut off from family, groups, loyal friends, you would lose the connections that defined who you are

group identification provide a sense of belonging, a set of values, network of caring individuals, assurance of security

deeper, more stable attachment to their groups

valuing communal solidarity
——placing importance on preserving group spirit and ensuring others never lose face

what people say reflect their opinion and what they presume other feel

avoiding direct confrontation, blunt honesty, uncomfortable topics
defer to other’s wishes and display a polite, self effacing humility

elders and superiors receive respect, duty to family trumps personal career and mate preference

in new groups, people may be shy and more easily embarrassed

we>me

individualism in western culture over the last century
increased because of…

voluntary migration

a sparsely populated challenging environment

shift to capitalist economy

gender vs. female,male
gender is defined by biological sex

female/male is defined by biological and social characteristics

cultural neuroscience
studying how neurobiology and cultural traits influence each other

different forms of serotonin regulating genes across countries
——collectivist cultures tend to carry a version with greater anxiety, through living in such cultures help protect people from anxiety

child rearing practices
reflect cultural values that vary across time and place

western families want independent children

asians and africans live in cultures that value emotional closeness
——infants and toddlers may sleep with their mom or spend days close to a family member
——culture encourages a strong self of family self

upper class british parents give caregiving to nannies and send children off to boarding school

african gussi society
——babies nurse freely but spend most of that day on mom’s back
——lots of body contact but little face to face language interaction
——when mom is pregnant again, another takes care of child

no right way to rear children successfully

family self
a feeling that what shames the child shames the family

what brings honor to the family brings honor to the self

similarities across groups
cross 49 country study revealed smaller than expected nation to nation differences

similar conscientiousness and extraversion

compared with person to person differences in a groups
——between groups differences are small
——we respond similarly to babies and speak the same to babies

we share a universal principle for grammar

our tastes vary but reflect common principles of hunger

out social behaviour may vary but they reflect pervasive principles of human influence

differences within a culture
easily explained by interaction between our biology and our culture

we do differently in school because of
——family structure, [peer influences, parental education

why both genders are similar
we faced similar adaptive challenges

doesn’t indicate vocabulary, intelligence, happiness or to what we see, hear, learn and remember

little difference in self esteem

differences in males and females
women feel better about their behaviour and ethics

men feel better about their appearance

women
——live 5 years longer
——enter puberty 2 years sooner
——carries 70% more fat
——has 40% less muscle
——5 inches shorter
——sexyally rearoused immediately after an orgasm
——smell fainter odors
——express emotions more freely and ——offered help more
——doubly vulnerable to depression and anxiety
——risk of developing an eating disorder-10x likely

men
——4 times more likely to commit suicide or suffer alcohol dependence
——more likely to be autistic. color blind, attention deficit hyperactive disorder as children
——antisocial personality disorder as adults

gender and aggression
in surveys, men admit to more aggression than do women

experiments confirm that men tend to behave more aggressively

the aggression gender gap pertains to direct physical aggression, rather than verbal relational aggression

gender gap in physical aggression
appears in everyday life at various ages and on various cultures, especially those with gender inequality

in dating relationship, violent acts are almost mutual

but more men get arrested for violent crimes

hunting, fighting, warring are primarily men’s activities

men express more support for war

gender and social power
PEOPLE WORLDWIDE HAVE PERCEIVED MEN AS MORE DOMINANT, FORCEFUL, INDEpendent

women as more deferential, nurturant, affiliative

leadership tend to go to males
——as leaders, men tend to be more directive, autocratic
——women tend to be more democratic. more welcoming of subordinate’s input in decision making

when uttering opinions
——men tend to say opinion
——women tend to express support

men
——tend to act as powerful people do- talking assertively, interrupting, initiating touches, staring more, smiling less, apologizing less
——these behaviours help sustain social power inequalities
——traditionally male occupations get paid more
——more men hold political leadership
——women are perceived to be more hungry for political power because male power hunger is more expected and accepted

gender and social connectedness
surfaces early in children’s play

boys play in large groups with an activity
focus, little intimate discussion

girls play in smaller groups, often with one friend
——less competitive than boys, more imitative of social relationship[
——more open and responsive to feedback than are males

women
——more interdependent than males
——teen girls spend more time with friends and less time alone
——late adolescents. they spend more time on social networking sites
——take more pleasure in taking dace to dace
——tend to use conversation to explore relationships

men
——enjoy doing activities side by side
——tend to use conversation to communicate solution

men and women talkativeness
women are on the phone longer

women text and receive texts more often

but men and women average about 16,000 words daily

women’s social connectedness
women orient their interests to less things but to more people

kej are 7x more likely to be into compsci than women

in workplace, women are less likely to be driven by money and status and opt for reduces work hours

women are 5x more likely to claim primary responsibility for taking care of children

women’s emphasis on caring
——why people are more closer to mom than dad

women and men turn to female friend to share worries, hurts, because friendship with women are more intimate, enjoyable, and nurturing

bonds with women are stronger than among women

women’s ties bind families together

women talk more often and openly as friends

women are more likely to turn to others for stress support

gender differences in social connectedness, power and other traits
peak in late adolescence and early adulthood

as teenagers, girls become less assertive and more flirtatious

boy become more domineering and unexpressive

after birth of first child, women become more traditionally gender oriented

but by age 50, male and delay parenthood related gender differences subside

men become more empathetic and less domineering

women become more assertive and self confident

men’s social connectedness
men value freedom and self reliance

men are less religious and pray less

dominate the rnl of professional skeptics

male answer syndrome
men more likely than women to hazard answers than to admit they don’t know
how the sexes are similar
faced similar challenges

regulating heat with sweat

developing tastes that nourish

both women and men want kind, honest, intelligent partners

sex hormones
different concentrations of this differs our physiologically
testosterone
a gene in the y chromosome that has a master triggering the testes to develop and produce the principal male hormone

females have this, but less of it

male’s greater testosterone output starts the development of external sex organs

stimulates the development of male characteristics during puberty

grey matter vs white matter
gray matter- neuronal bodies

white matter- axons and dendrites

4-5 prenatal months
second key period for sexual differentiation

sex hormones bath the fetal brain and influence its wiring

different patterns for males and females develop under the influence of male’s greater testosterone and female’s ovarian hormones

abundant sex hormone receptors in development in brain areas

brain parts difference in men and women
men have thicker frontal lobes, area with verbal fluency

parietal cortex, spatial perception area, is thicker in men

gender difference also in hippocampus, amygdala, volume of gray matter vs white matter

excess testosterone in female embryo
by malfunction in the glands or hormone injections

genetically female infants are born with masculine appearing genitals
——can be altered surgically

until puberty, these are tomboys

but prenatal exposure to excess testosterone doesn’t reverse gender identity
——think they are girls

some develop into lesbians, but most are heterosexual

how to explain tomboyish behaviour
experiment with many animal species confirm that female embryos given male hormones will later exhibit a typically masculine appearance and more aggressive behaviour

relatively high testosterone levels in prenatal amniotic fluid predict greater male-typical play and more athletic success for both boy and girl

so do we conclude that biology produces behavioral gender differences?
its complicated

girls who were prenatally exposed to excess testosterone look masculine and known to be also treated more like boys

so the effect of early exposure to sex hormones is both direct, in girl’s appearance and influence of social experiences that shape her

role
set of expectation, norms about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
what results in the differences between males and females
the cognitive and behavioral differences are from the combination of environment. sex related genes. physiology
gender and culture
although biologically influences, gender is also socially constructed

what biology initiates, culture accelerates

gender identity
sense of being male or female
gender roles
behaviours culture expects of its men and women

can smooth social relations, avoiding irritating discussion about whose job it is to do which house chore

if we deviate from conventions, we may feel anxious

culture has a great influence

change over time- like number of women who have postgraduate degrees

social learning theory
assumes that children learn gender identity by observing and imitating others gender linked behaviors and by being awarded or punished for acting in certain ways themselves
——“big boys don’t cry”s
gender typing
the acquisition of a role traditional masculine or feminine role

some children are more attuned than others to traditional male or female roles

cognition and gender
in our own childhood, we formed schemas (concepts) that help understand the world

one of these was a gender schema, framework for organizing boy-girl characteristics

social learning and gender schemas
social learning shapes gender schemas

children before 1 can discriminate female and male voices

we start using pronouns he and she

other languages objects as masculine or feminine

children think only 2 type of people exist and they associate some things of being a gender and like their own kind bette and seek it out to play

transgender
people’s sense of being a male or female differs from their birth sex

a man in a woman’s body or vice versa

umbrella term

transsexual
people who live or wish to live as members of the gender opposite to their birth sex, often aided by medical treatment that supports gender reassignments
what are gender roles and what do their variation tell us about our human capacity for learning and adaptatio
social rules or norms for accepted and expected behavior for females and males

the norms associated with various roles, including gender roles, vary in different cultural contexts
——proof that we are capable of learning and adapting to social demands of different environment