Essay on Chapter 31

Muhammad Ali
Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state.
Mahmud II
19th Ottoman sultan who built a private, professional army. He crushed the Janissaries and initiated reforms on Western precedents.
Abd al-Hamid
He developed his administration according to Tanzimat principles.
Alexander II
A Russian Tsar who implemented rapid social change and general modernization of Russia.
Sergei Witte
A tough finance minister who thought that Russia’s industrial backwardness was threatening Russia’s power and greatness.
Lin Zexu
Distinguished Chinese official charged with stamping out opium trade in southern China. He ordered blockade of European trading areas in Canton and confiscation of opium. He also sent into exile following the Opium War.
Hong Xiuquan
The leader of the Taiping Rebellion.
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported anti-foreign movements like the so-called Boxers, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces.
Commodore Mathew Perry
After arriving with a fleet of warships, he gets Japan to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa, opening some ports to America. Helped to end Japanese isolation.
Emperor Mutsuhito
Became the young emperor after the collapse of the Shogunate. He realized the need for reform. This reform came through his reign know as the Meiji.
Ito Hirobumi
He led a comission that traveled to Great Britain, France, Germany, and the U.S. to study their governments.
Janissaries
Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan.
The “capitulations”
Agreement between the Europeans and the Ottomans that allowed Europeans living in the Ottoman empire to follow European law instead of Ottoman law. European business people took advantage of this by creating tax-exempt banks and enterprises, and taxing goods at ports.
Tanzimat reforms
Series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876 Established Western-style universities, state postal system, railways, extensive legal reforms; resulted in creation of new constitution in 1876.
Young Turks
Young rebellious people in the Ottoman Empire who forced the Sultan to reform.
Crimean War
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. Russia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed.
Zemstvos
Local elected assembly set up in Russia under Alexander the II.
Soviets
A Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.
Duma
This was a legislative parliament in Russia with real political power.
Cohong System
Specially licensed Chinese firms that were under strict government regulation.
Opium War
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government’s refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
Unequal Treaties
Treaties between China and the Western powers after the Opium War that vastly favored the Western powers.
Taiping Revolution
Raged throughout most of China and brought the Qing dynasty to the brink collapse.
Self-Strengthening Movement
Late 19th century movement in China to counter the challenge from the West. This was led by provincial leaders.
Sphere of influence
A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
Boxer Rebellion
A rebellion of traditionalist Chinese people who wanted to throw the foreigners out.
Tokugawa Shogunate
Japanese ruling dynasty that strove to isolate it from foreign influences.
Meiji restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
Daimyo
A japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai.
Bakufu
Military-style government of the Japanese shogun.
Neo-Confucianism
The Confucian response to Buddhism by taking Confucian and Buddhist beliefs and combining them into this. It is mainly Confucian.
The leader of the Taiping rebellion was
Hong Xiuquan
Muhammad ali was
the Egyptian leader who overthrew Ottoman control.
In the early nineteenth century, the Ottoman sultan Selim III
c. was locked up by the Janissaries because they considered his reforms a threat.
The young ottomans were
fiercely opposed to the Tanzimat reforms.
A defeat in the Crimean War stopped expansion by the
russians
The key to social reform in Russia was
emancipation of the serfs
The Russian serfs were emancipated by
Alexander II
The emancipation of the Russian serfs
resulted in little if any increase in agricultural production
The prime mover behind Russian industrialization was
Count Sergei Witte, minister of finance
The centerpiece of Sergei Witte’s Russian Industrial policy was
a massive program of railway construction
The working conditions of the growing Russian industrial class in St. Petersburg and Moscow
were terrible and left the workers receptive to revolutionary propaganda
Tsar Alexander II was assassinated in 1881 by
an agent of the Land and Freedom party
After the assassination of Alexander II, his successor Nicholas II
championed oppression and police control.

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