Chapter 31 Vocab

Eastern bloc
Nations favorable to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe during the cold war-particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and East Germany
Iron Curtain
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
containment
a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate peacefully
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Labour program
-nationalization of industry
-national insurance act
-most of economy was still capitalist
-NHS founded late 1940s
-government moved to provided housing
-leading role in building new housing
-council houses-40% pay rent to the government
CIA
an independent agency of the United States government responsible for collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence activities abroad in the national interest
Ronald Reagan
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and “populist” ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Simone de Beauvoir
French feminist and existentialist and novelist (1908-1986)
James Watson
United States geneticist who (with Crick in 1953) helped discover the helical structure of DNA (born in 1928)
Jean Luc Godard
French film maker influenced by surrealism
Tito
Yugoslav statesman who led the resistance to German occupation during World War II and established a communist state after the war (1892-1980)
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Harry Truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
Christian Democratic Party
Consists of the Christian Democratic union (CDU) and the Christian social Union (CSU). Allied parties on the center right. One of Germany’s two main political party groupings since 1949. An advocate for Capitalism and of the US.
Betty Friedan
United States feminist who founded a national organization for women (born in 1921)
Berlin Wall
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
Aleksander Solzhenitsyn
Russian author critical of the Soviet regime; published trilogy on the Siberian prison camps, The Gulag Archipelago.
Civil Rights movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
North Korea
a communist country in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula
George Bush
43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
Bernard Buffet
A French painter and member of the Anti-Abstract group.
Igmar Bergman
Swedish actor, director, and theater actor.
Sputnik
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Nikita Khrushchev
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
decolonization
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
New Feminism
New wave of women’s rights agitation dating from 1949; emphasized more literal equality that would play down domestic roles and qualities for women; promoted specific reforms and redefinition of what it meant to be female
European Union
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Common Market
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Green Movement
Political movement and party that arose in several western European nations in the 1970’s that opposed unfettered free market economies and unchecked industrial pollution
Great Society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Common Market
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Vietnam
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Bill Clinton
42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached
Francis Crick
English biochemist who (with Watson in 1953) helped discover the helical structure of DNA (born in 1916)
Henry Moore
British sculptor whose works are monumental organic forms (1898-1986)
Beatles
a rock group from Liverpool who between 1962 and 1970 produced a variety of hit songs and albums (most of it written by Paul McCartney and John Lennon)
De-Stalinization
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor
Welfare State
a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
Liberal Democracy
A political system that promotes participation, competition, and liberty and emphasizes individual freedom and civil rights.