Chapter 31 EMT

Which of the following processes occurs during ovulation?
The inner lining of the uterus thickens in preparation for implantation
From what internal female organ is the fetus expelled during delivery?
The vagina and the neck of the uterus comprise the:
birth canal
The term “bloody show” is defined as:
the small amount of pink-tinged mucus that is discharged from the vagina after expulsion of the mucous plugMost medical models base a pregnant woman’s due date:
Which of the following statements regarding the placenta is correct?
The placenta allows oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other products to transfer between the mother and fetus but does not allow blood to mix between the mother and fetus
The umbilical cord:
carries oxygen to the baby via the umbilical vein
The amniotic fluid serves to:
insulate and protect the fetus
Most medical models base a pregnant woman’s due date:
on the first day of her last menstrual cycle
By the 20th week of pregnancy, the uterus is typically at or above the level of the mother’s:
belly button
Which of the following is a normal physiologic change that occurs in the mother’s respiratory system during pregnancy?
increased respiratory rate and decreased respiratory reserve
Pregnant women are advised to take iron supplements, such as prenatal vitamins, because:
pregnancy causes a decreased number of red blood cells, which predisposes the mother to anemia
A mother who is pregnant with her first baby is typically in the first stage of labor for approximately:
16 hours
The onset of labor begins with:
contractions of the uterus
The term primigravida refers to a woman who:
is pregnant for the first time
Which of the following occurs during true labor?
Uterine contractions become more regular
Braxton-Hicks contractions are characterized by:
alleviation of pain with movement or changing positions
After the fetus has descended into the pelvis at the end of the third trimester, many mothers experience:
easier breathing
The third stage of labor begins when the:
baby is expelled from the vagina.
Preeclampsia MOST commonly occurs after the ____ week of gestation.
Signs and symptoms of preeclampsia include:
headache and edema
Eclampsia is MOST accurately defined as:
seizures that result from severe hypertension
Supine hypotensive syndrome occurs when:
the pregnant uterus compresses the inferior vena cava
A 33-year-old woman who is 36 weeks pregnant is experiencing scant vaginal bleeding. During transport, you note that she suddenly becomes diaphoretic, tachycardic, and hypotensive. In addition to administering 100% oxygen, you should:
place her in a left lateral recumbent position
The leading cause of maternal death during the first trimester of pregnancy is:
internal bleeding caused by a ruptured ectopic pregnancy
A history of pelvic inflammatory disease or tubal ligations increases a woman’s risk for:
an ectopic pregnancy
Abruptio placenta occurs when:
the placenta prematurely separates from the uterine wall
Placenta previa is MOST accurately defined as:
development of the placenta over the cervical opening
Which of the following statements regarding gestational diabetes is correct?
In some cases, women with gestational diabetes require insulin injectionsA precipitous labor and delivery is MOST common in women who:
A pregnant trauma patient may lose a significant amount of blood before showing signs of shock because:
pregnant patients have an overall increase in blood volume
If a pregnant patient requires spinal immobilization, you should secure her to the backboard and then:
elevate the right side of the board with rolled towels or blankets
The presence of thick meconium in the amniotic fluid indicates:
that the baby’s airway may be obstructed
Which of the following questions is of LEAST pertinence when determining whether a mother will deliver her baby within the next few minutes?
“Have you had a sonogram?”
Which of the following is an indication of imminent birth?
crowning of the baby’s head
You are assessing a 25-year-old woman who is 39 weeks pregnant. She is experiencing regular contractions that are approximately 3 minutes apart and states that her amniotic sac broke 2 hours ago. After taking the standard precautions, you should:
assess her for crowning
When preparing a pregnant patient for delivery, you should position her:
on a firm surface with her hips elevated 2″ to 4″
During delivery, it is MOST important to position your partner at the mother’s head because:
the mother may become nauseated and vomit
A precipitous labor and delivery is MOST common in women who:
have delivered a baby before
When determining the frequency of contractions, you should time the contractions from the:
start of one to the start of the next
When the mother is experiencing a contraction, you should instruct her to:
take quick short breaths
During delivery of the baby’s head, you should suction the mouth before the nose because:
suctioning the nose first may cause the baby to gasp and aspirate fluid
During your visual inspection of a 19-year-old woman in labor, you see the baby’s head crowning at the vaginal opening. What should you do?
Apply gentle pressure to the baby’s head as it delivers
Upon delivery of the baby’s head, you note that its face is encased in the unruptured amniotic sac. You should:
puncture the sac and suction the baby’s mouth and nose
A nuchal cord is defined as an umbilical cord that:
is wrapped around the baby’s neck
Upon delivery of an infant’s head, you note that the umbilical cord is wrapped around its neck. You should:
attempt to slip the cord gently over the infant’s head
After a baby is born, it is important to:
ensure that it is thoroughly dried and warmed
Following delivery of a full-term baby, you have properly cared for the baby and have clamped and cut the umbilical cord. During transport, you note that the mother is experiencing moderate vaginal bleeding. You should:
firmly massage the uterine fundus with a circular motion
Which of the following is NOT generally considered an obstetrical emergency?
return of contractions following delivery of the baby
A newborn infant will usually begin breathing spontaneously within _______ seconds following birth.
15 to 30
Common interventions used to stimulate spontaneous respirations in the newborn include all of the following, EXCEPT:
positive-pressure ventilations
If a newborn’s heart rate is less than 60 beats/min following delivery, you should:
provide ventilations for 30 seconds
Vigorous suctioning of a newborn’s airway is indicated if:
there is meconium in the amniotic fluid
You have just delivered a premature baby. Your assessment reveals that he is breathing adequately; however, his heart rate is 90 beats/min. You should:
keep him warm and provide ventilatory assistance
Which of the following is NOT a component of the Apgar score?
body size
If a baby is born at 7:52, the second Apgar score should be calculated at:
You have just delivered a baby boy. His body is pink, but his hands and feet are blue. His heart rate is approximately 110 beats/min and his respirations are rapid and irregular. He has a weak cry when stimulated and resists attempts to straighten his legs.
You have just delivered a full-term infant. His respirations are rapid and irregular, and he has a strong cry. What should you do next?
Assess the brachial or umbilical pulse
Which of the following statements regarding a breech presentation is MOST correct?
A breech presentation occurs when the buttocks are the presenting part
Your 22-year-old patient is in active labor. Upon visual inspection, you note that the infant’s leg is protruding from the vagina. Appropriate management of this situation includes:
placing the mother supine with her head down and pelvis elevated
The ONLY indications for placing your gloved fingers in the vagina during delivery are:
breech presentation and prolapsed umbilical cord
While examining a woman in labor, you see the umbilical cord protruding from the vagina. You should:
push the infant’s head away from the cord
Spina bifida is a developmental defect in which:
a portion of the spinal cord or meninges protrudes outside of the vertebrae
An abortion occurs when the fetus and placenta deliver before:
20 weeks
Which of the following statements regarding twins is correct?
Most twins are born within 45 minutes of each other
Fetal complications associated with drug- or alcohol-addicted mothers include all of the following, EXCEPT:
profound tachycardia
An infant is considered to be premature if it:
weighs less than 5 lb or is born before 36 weeks’ gestation
In contrast to a full-term infant, a premature infant:
has an even proportionately larger head
Following delivery of a pulseless and apneic infant who has a foul odor, skin sloughing, and diffuse blistering, you should:
provide emotional support to the mother
General treatment guidelines when caring for a woman with traumatic vaginal bleeding include:
transporting to an appropriate facility
Spina bifida is a developmental defect in which: