Rise of the Lower House
1600s – 1700s most of the colonal legislatures had two houses: a lower house elected by the people of the colony and an upper house appointed by the governor. Over time, the lower house became more powerful because it reflected the needs and desires of the people, while the upper house was merely a figurehead.
1600s – 1700s These were representatives sent to England by the colonial leaders during the 1600s and 1700s. They served as a link between England and the colonies.
The Glorious Revolution
1688 King James II’s policies, such as converting to Catholicism, conducting a series of repressive trials known as the “Bloody Assizes,” and maintaining a standing army, so outraged the people of England that Parliament asked him to resign and invited King William and Queen Mary (King James II’s daughter) of the Netherlands who became known as William II in England, to take over the throne. King James II left peacefully after his troops deserted him and William and Mary tooj the throne without any war or bloodshed, hence the revolution was termed “glorious.” Also known as the Bloodless Revolution.
mid 1600s Christian revival movement that stressed Bible study, conversion or “new Birth,” and a devout life. It started as an attempt to reform the German Lutheran Church in the mid-seventeenth century. German pietism immigrants played a large part in religious revivalism in the mid eighteenth century and held beliefs similar to Methodists.
Protestant Christian domination where elected assemblies or presbyteries ran the church government rather than the congregations in Congregationalism or Bishops in the Episcopal system.
1700s – 1800s Religious movement that discounted Cavinist doctrines stressing human sinfulness and rejected the belief in the Holy Trinity. Instead, Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God. It began in America in the 1700s within the Congregational churches of New England and held that each congregation should govern itself. In 1852, it officially split off from Congregationalism with the formation of the Unitarian Universal Association.
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1700s A religious belief associated with the Age of Reason and the Enlightenment in which a rational “watchmaker,” God, did not intervene directly in peoples’ lives. Deists such as BEnjamin Franklin rejected the authority of the Bible and relied on people’s “natural reason” to define a moral code.
First Great Awakening
1730s – 1740s Widespread religious revitalization movement that stressed religious faith and personal choice. Characterized by large, open-air meetings where itinerant preachers gave emotional sermons. This movement is referred to as the First Great Awakening, to distinguish it from a later movement in the 1820s to 1830s, known as the Second Great Awakening.
These large-scale outdoor religious gatherings were important vehicles for the First Great Awakening. During these meetings, countless sinners professed conversion as revivalist preachers stirred up religious faith with fervid sermons.
Northampton, Massachusetts, Puritan minister. Edwards was a learned and orthodox preacher. He gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of hell. “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” was the title of one of his most famous sermons.
Important role in the Great Awakening, also a leader of the “New Lights.” Whitefield became a sensation throughout England, preaching to huge audiences. In 1738, HE made the first of seven visits to America. Whitefield’s preaching tour of the colonies, from 1739 to 1741, was the high-water mark of the Great Awakening there.
Old Lights/New Lights
The “new lights” were new religious movements formed during the Great Awakening which broke away from the Congregational church in New England. The “Old Lights” were the established Congregational church.
Prolific Puritan theologian. He urged the inoculation of Bostonians during a smallpox epidemic in the 1720s. There was much controversy over inoculation, but it was effective in stopping the disease.
William Tennant “Log College”
A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. In 1735, he founded a college (the “Log College”) for the training of the Presbyterian youth. Many of the “Log College” graduates went on to found other schools along the frontier. Princeton is seen as a successor of a log college.
Establishment of New Colleges
One Consequence of the Great Awakening was that churches founded new colleges to educate their young and train their ministers. The new colleges included Princeton, King’s college (columbia), Brown, Rutgers.
mid 1700s The European cultural movement that reached America and emphasized rational and scientific thinking over traditional religion and superstition. Followers of the Enlightenment believed that human beings had the capability to analyze and affect the natural world, that individuals had to govern themselves, and that societies could be changed not by God, but through educational advancement and purposeful action.
Maryland/ Maryland Act of Toleration
1649 Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of England at the demand of the colony’s large, Protestant population. (was created by Catholics) The act guarunteed religious freedom to all Christians.
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel i Foreign Parts aka SPG
1701 Founded as the missionary organization of the Church of England. Its purpose was to strengthen the Anglican Church in America. The SPG sent missionaries and teachers to serve the colonists. The first missionaries arrived in 1702, but soon expanded their mission to converting American Indians and slaves as well.
1706-1790 Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
Poor Richard’s Almanac
1735 written by ben franklin funny bits and common sense advice about how to live. most popular almanac in the colonies.
John Peter Zenger
1735 charged with libeling a govt. official, led to the freedom of the press in the US.
1699 Declared that wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to England in order to protect the English woolen trade.
early 1700s prime minister of Great Britain in the first half of the 1700s. His position towards the colonies was SALUTARY NEGLECT.
1714-1763 during George I and George II relaxed Enlgish rule over the colonies, led to self govt within the colonies.
1732 declared that hats made in the colonies could not be exported. was done to protect the British hat manufacturing industry.
1733 taxed sugar, molasses, etc, which the colonies imported from countries other than England. angered new england colonies, was hard to enforce.
1750 British declared that no new iron forges or mills could be created in the colonies.
1751 Only applied to massachusetts, attempt to ban paper money here, overruled by Parliament.
Currency Act 2
1764 This act applied to all of the colonies. It banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia’s decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
1636 first college founded in the colonies. founded by a grant from a mass genreal court. was to train puritan ministers.
Old Deluder Act
1647 Every town in Mass Bay Colony with 50 or more households had to appoint a teacher for the children and pay their salary. A town with 100 or more had to have a grammar school. wanted everyone to be literate so they could read the bible.
1701 was established by colonial clergymen who wanted to establish a college in New Haven, Conn, to preserve the tradition of European liberal education in the New World.
1699-1777 known as the father of American botany. Bartram was self taught and gained such a reputation he corresponded with distinguished naturalists in Europe. he traveled through the colonies, observing wildlife, plants, etc, and performed hbrid plant experiments and founded he first botanica garden in the US.
Salem Witch Trials
1692 in Salem, Mass Cotton Mather was chie judge 19 people were hanged because they were thought to be witches, ended up being an obvious mistake to everyone.
1700s to 1800s
1739 Largest slave rebellio in colonial times. 20 slaves met by Stono River in south caroline to plan their escape to Spanish Florida. stole guns and headed south, where runaway slaves joined them. their owners caught up, battle ensued, 20 whites died, 40 blacks died, caused harsher slave laws in south carolina.
1754-1784 1st african american 1st slave and 3rd woman to publish a book of poems in the colonies. was known internationally.
1600s primary source of labor before slaves
New York and philly as urban centers
played a major role in American Independence.
New England COlonies
more diversified than southern colonies, built fishing, shipbuilding and logging industries as well as profiting from the triangular trade.
new england rum to africa slaves to caribbean sugar cane to colonies to make rum
larger more fertile farms primary crops were wheat and corn. had ny and philly
large plantations slave labor tobbaco rice indigo were major crops
a legal right originating in medieval europe and carried to the colonies that gave a widow the use of 1/3 of the familys land and goods in her lifetime
land lifestock farm equipment household goods given by parent as marriage gifts in return they take care of them in old age
two british legal doctrines governing the inheritance of property PRIMOGENITURE a mans real property went to his oldest son ENTAIL property could only be given to direct descendants