Chapter 29 Vocab – AP World History

cubist movement
20th Century art style; best represented by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso; rendered familiar objects as geometrical shapes
Benito Mussolini
Italian Fascist leader after World War I; created first fascist government (1922-1943) based on aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories
facism
Political philosophy that became predominant in Italy and then Germany during the 1920s and 1930s; attacked weakness of democracy, corruption of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign and military programs; undertook state control of economy to reduce social friction
syndicalism
Economic and political system based on the organization of labor; imported in Latin America from European political movements; militant force in Latin American politics
Mexican Revolution
Fought over a period of almost ten years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Díaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
Porfirio Díaz
One of Juárez’s generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876; dominated Mexican politics for 35 years; imposed strong central government
Francisco Madero
(1873-1913) Moderate democratic reformer in Mexico; proposed moderate reforms in 1910; arrested by Porfirio Díaz; initiated revolution against Díaz when released from prison; temporarily gained power, but removed and assassinated in 1913
Pancho Villa
(1878-1923) Mexican revolutionary and military commander in northern Mexico during the Mexican Revolution; succeeded along with Emiliano Zapata in removing Díaz from power in 1911; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta
Emiliano Zapata
Mexican revolutionary and military commander of peasant guerrilla movement after 1910 centered in Morelos; succeeded along with Pancho Villa in removing Díaz from power; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta; demanded sweeping land reform
Victoriano Huerta
Attempted to reestablish centralized dictatorship in Mexico following the removal of Madero in 1913; forced from power in 1914 by Villa and Zapata
Alvaro Obregón
(1880-1928) Emerged as leader of the Mexican government in 1915; elected president in 1920
Mexican Constitution of 1917
Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution
Diego Rivera
(1886-1957) Mexican artist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; famous for murals painted on walls of public buildings; mixed romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology
José Clemente Orozco
(1883-1949) Mexican muralist of the period after the Mexican revolution; like Rivera’s, his work featured romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology
Cristeros
Conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; most active in central Mexico; attempted to halt slide toward secularism; movement resulted in armed violence
Alexander Kerensky
(1881-1970) Liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; sought development of parliamentary rule, religious freedom
Red Army
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background
New Economic Policy
Initiated by Lenin in 1921; state continued to set basic economic policies, but efforts were now combined with individual initiative; policy allowed food production to recover
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Federal system of socialist republics established in 1923 in various ethnic regions of Russia; firmly controlled by Communist party; diminished nationalities protest under Bolsheviks; dissolved 1991
Supreme Soviet
Parliament of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; elected by universal suffrage; actually controlled by Communist party; served to ratify party decisions
Joseph Stalin
Successor to Lenin as head of the USSR; strongly nationalist view of communism; represented anti-Western strain of Russian tradition; crushed opposition to his rule; established series of five-year plans to replace New Economic Policy; fostered agricultural collectivization; led USSR through World War II; furthered cold war with western Europe and the United States; died in 1953
Comintern
International office of communism under USSR dominance established to encourage the formation of Communist parties in Europe and elsewhere
collectivization
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants, though often lowered food production; part of Stalin’s economic and political planning; often adopted in other communist regimes
Yuan Shikai
Warlord in northern China after fall of Qing dynasty; hoped to seize imperial throne; president of China after 1912; resigned in the face of Japanese invasion in 1916
May Fourth movement
Resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy; rejected Confucianism
Li Dazhao
(1888-1927) Chinese intellectual who gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy; headed study circle at the University of Beijing; saw peasants as vanguard of revolutionary communism in China
Mao Zedong
(1893-1976) Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in Nationalist revolution; influenced by Li Dazhao; led Communist reaction against Guomindang purges in 1920s, culminating in Long March of 1934; seized control of all of mainland China by 1949; initiated Great Leap Forward in 1958
Guomindang
Chinese Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and Chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communists in 1924; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925
Whampoa Military Academy
Founded in 1924; military wing of the Guomindang; first head of the academy was Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
A military officer who succeeded Sun Yat-sen as the leader of the Guomindang or Nationalist Party in China in the mid-1920s; became the most powerful leader in China in the early 1930s, but his Nationalist forces were defeated and driven from China by the Communists after World War II
Long March
Communist escape from Hunan province during civil war with Guomindang in 1934; center of Communist power moved to Shaanxi province; firmly established Mao Zedong as head of the Communist party in China
Great Depression
International economic crisis following the First World War; began with collapse of American stock market in 1929; actual causes included collapse of agricultural prices in 1920s; included collapse of banking houses in the United States and western Europe, massive unemployment; contradicted optimistic assumptions of 19th century
Popular Front
Combination of Socialist and Communist political parties in France; won election in 1936; unable to take strong measures of social reform because of continuing strength of conservatives; fell from power in 1938
New Deal
President Franklin Roosevelt’s precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state’s intervention in U.S. social and economic life
totalitarian state
A new kind of government in the 20th century that exercised massive, direct control over virtually all the activities of its subjects; existed in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union
Gestapo
Secret police in Nazi Germany, known for brutal tactics
Spanish Civil War
War pitting authoritarian and military leaders in Spain against republicans and leftists between 1936 and 1939; Germany and Italy supported the royalists; the Soviet Union supported the republicans; led to victory of the royalist forces
Corporatism
Political ideology that emphasized the organic nature of society and made the state a mediator, adjusting the interests of different social groups; appealed to conservative groups in European and Latin American societies and to the military
Lázaro Cárdenas
President of Mexico from 1934 to 1940; responsible for redistribution of land, primarily to create ejidos, or communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education
Getúlio Vargas
Elected president of Brazil in 1929; launched centralized political program by imposing federal administrators over state governments; held off coups by communists in 1935 and fascists in 1937; imposed a new constitution based on Mussolini’s Italy; leaned to communists after 1949; committed suicide in 1954
Juan D. Perón
Military leader in Argentina who became dominant political figure after militiary coup in 1943; used position as Minister of Labor to appeal to working groups and the poor; became president in 1946, forced into exile in 1955; returned and won presidency in 1973
five-year plans
Stalin’s plans to hasten industrialization of USSR; constructed massive factories in metallurgy, mining, and electric power; led to massive state-planned industrialization at cost of availability of consumer products
Socialist realism
Attempt within the USSR to relate formal culture to the masses in order to avoid the adoption of western European cultural forms; begun under Joseph Stalin; fundamental method of Soviet fiction, art, and literary criticism
Politburo
Executive committee of the Soviet Communist party; 20 members

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