Chapter 28 Review

The progressive movement believed that social and economic problems should be solved at the community level without involvement by the federal government (true/false)
Muckraking journalists, social gospel ministers, and women reformers all aroused Americans’ concern about economic and social problems (true/false)
Early twentieth-century progressivism found its home almost entirely in the Republican party (true/false)
Many female progressives saw the task of improving life in factories and slums as an extension of their traditional roles as wives and mothers (true/false)
President Theodore Roosevelt ended the anthracite coal strike by threatening to use federal troops to break the miners’ union (true/false)
Some progressive reforms such as the municipal ownership of utilities were modeled on the admired practices of contemporary German cities (true/false)
Roosevelt believed that all the monopolistic corporate trusts should be broken up so that competition could be restored among smaller businesses (true/false)
Upton Sinclair’s novel, The Jungle, was intended to arouse consumers’ concern about unsanitary practices in the meat industry (true/false)
Conservation of forests, water, and other natural resources was probably Theodore Roosevelt’s most popular and enduring Presidential achievement (true/false)
Defenders of nature became divided between fervent preservationists who wanted to stop all human intrusions into wilderness areas and more moderate conservationists who thought nature should be available for multiple use (true/false)
Roosevelt effectively used the power of the presidency and the federal government to tame and regulate unbridled capitalism while preserving the basic foundations of the market system and American business (true/false)
William Howard Taft demonstrated his skill as a political campaigner and leader throughout his presidency (true/false)
Progressive Republicans became angry with President Taft because he began to form alliances with Democrats and Socialists (true/false)
The Ballinger-Pinchot conservation controversy pushed Taft further into an alliance with the reactionary Republican Old Guard and against the pro-Roosevelt progressives
President Taft used his firm control of the Republican party machinery to deny Theodore Roosevelt the nomination in 1912 (true/false)
The two primary goals of the progressive movement, as a whole, were to
use the state to curb monopoly power and improve the lives of ordinary people
Prominent among those who aroused the progressive movement by stirring the public’s sense of concern were
socialists, social gospelers, women, and muckraking journalists
Which of the following was not among the targets of muckraking journalistic exposes?
The U.S. army and Navy
Most progressives were
urban middle-class people
Among the political reforms sought by the progressives were
initiative and referendum, direct election of senators, and women’s suffrage
The states where progressivism first gained great influence were
Wisconsin, Oregon, and California
The Supreme Court Case of Muller v. Oregon was seen as a victory for both progressivism and women’s rights because it
upheld the constitutionality of state laws granting special protections to women in the workplace
President Theodore Roosevelt ended the major Pennsylvania Coal strike by
forcing the mine owners and workers to negotiate by threatening to seize the coal mines and operate them with federal troops
The Roosevelt-backed Elkins Act and Hepburn Act were aimed at
more effective regulation of the railroad industry
The controversy over the Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park revealed
a philosophical disagreement between wilderness preservationists and more moderate multiple-use conservationists
Two issues that President Roosevelt especially promoted as part of his progressive policies were
consumer protection and conservation of nature
Roosevelt was blamed by big business for the panic of 1907 because
his progressive boat-rocking tactics had allegedly unsettled industry and undermined business confidence
As a result of his successful presidential campaign in 1908, William Howard Taft was widely expected to
continue and extend Theodore Roosevelt’s progressive policies
Progressive Republicans grew deeply disillusioned with Taft, especially over the issues of
trust-busting, tariffs, and conservation
Roosevelt finally decided to break with the Republicans and form a third party because
Taft had used his control of the Republican party machine to deny Roosevelt the nomination
Lochner v. New York
Supreme Court ruling that overturned a progressive law mandating a ten-hour workday
Gifford Pinchot
Pro-conservation federal official whose dismissal by Taft angered Roosevelt progressives
Thorstein Veblen
Led the way in using universities and regulatory agencies to pursue progressive goals
Lincoln Steffens
Early muckraker who exposed the political corruption in many American cities
Ida Tarbell
Made Taft’s dollar-diplomacy policy a failure
Seventeenth Amendment
Progressive measure that required U.S. Senators to be elected directly by the people rather than by state legislatures
Robert M. La Follette
The most influential of the state-level progressive governors and a presidential aspirant in 1912
Hiram Johnson
Provided the pioneering forces who laid the foundations for the Progressive movement
Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
New York City disaster that underscored urban workers’ need for government protection
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
Powerful progressive women’s organization that sought to “make the world homelike” by outlawing the saloon and the product it sold