Chapter 27 Sections 1 and 4

Define imperialism
-a seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country
Although Europeans had formed contacts with Africa, large African armies were successful in keeping Europeans out of most of Africa for 400 years. In fact, in 1880, what percentage of land in Africa did Europeans control?
List two reasons Europeans did not explore the interior of most of Africa.
1. Europeans couldn’t navigate African rivers
2. disease
Some Europeans did explore and journey into the African interior-which people?
-missionaries: usually the first white people to explore
-humanitarians (people who travel to help people) who opposed the European and American slave trade
How did most Europeans learn about Africa?
-through travel books and newspapers
Who “found” the Scottish missionary David Livingston at Lake Tanganyika in 1871 asking, “Dr. Livingston, I presume?”
-a reporter Henry Stanley
Which King commissioned Henry Stanley to obtain land for his country in the Congo?
-King Leopold II of Belgium
Although King Leopold claimed that he was only interested in claiming the Congo to end the slave trade and promote Christianity, his brutal exploitation of Congolese working in rubber plants led to the death of 10 million Congolese workers. This spurred a demand for changes. Who took over the control of the colony?
-the Belgian government
Who did Belgium’s taking over what became known as the Belgian Congo (which was 80 times larger than the city of Belgium) alarm?
Explain how industrialization impacted the European drive to colonize Africa.
-they searched for new markets and raw materials to improve their econmoies
Explain what Social Darwinism is and how this impacted European colonization.
-a social theory that claimed those who were the fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were considered superior to others
-they were impacted by this because through colonization, they wanted to bring the results of their progress to other “uncivilized” countries
To many Europeans, “westernizing” peoples really meant what?
How did Cecil Rhodes make his fortune?
What area was named after Cecil Rhodes?
-Rhodesia (the country)
List the four factors that helped to promote imperialism in Africa.
1. technological superiority
2. Europeans had the means to control their empire
3. disease
4. huge variety of language and cultures discouraged unity among them
When did the “scramble” for African territory begin in earnest?
Why was the Berlin Conference (1884-1885) called together?
-competition was so fierce that European countries feared war amoung themselves
What did this meeting “decide” regarding European colonization of Africa?
-agreed that any European country could claim land in Africa by notifying other nations of its claims and showing it could control the area
How do we know that Europeans were successful in dividing up African lands?
-only two nations were NOT under the control of Europeans
*2 nations not under control of Europe=Liberia and Ethiopia*
Although Africans bought little in the way of European products, why did Europeans still want colonies in Africa?
-wanted Africans to buy European raw materials in great quantities
*some raw materials included copper, tin, gold, diamonds, & rubber*
Which two nations were most interested in South Africa?
-Dutch and British
As the British fought against the Zulu Chief Shaka around 1816 and again against the Zulu King Cetshwayo in 1879, what battle ultimately left the Zulu nation in the hands of the British?
-Battle of Ulundi (July 1879)
The Dutch settle in South Africa, starting back in 1652 and Dutch Boers gradually took land and established farms. What ather name is used to describe Boers?
-Afrikaners or farmers
What happened when the British took over the Cape Colony in the early 1800s?
-they clashed with the Boers over British policy regarding land and slaves
What was the Great Trek of the 1830s?
-in 1830s, to escape the British, several thousand Boers began to move north (movement=Great Trek-*journey*)
What discovery led to the Boer War in 1899?
-diamonds and gold in 1860s/1880s
Who fought in the Boer War?
-British vs. Boers
Who won the Boer War?
Who controlled the Union of South AFrica which was established in 1910?
-Boer republics join together of control with the British
What happened to Winston Churchill while he served as a war correspondent during the Boer War and who became Churchill’s close friend?
-he was on a train that was ambushed by Boers; as he was getting men to safety and helping them escape, he was arrested by a Boer soldier (was able to escape)
-the Boer soldier who arrested him on the train (Louis Botha) beame his close friend
Until 1858, the British East India company was the leading power in India. Officially, the British government regulated this company. Until 1900 the East India Company operated with little interference from London. It had its own army of Indian soldiers. What were these soldiers called?
Why did Britain consider India the “jewel in the crown”?
-it was the most valuable country of all of Britain’s colonies
The British prevented India’s economy from expanding on its own, preventing any competition with British goods. Railroads helped transport raw goods in India and manufactured products from and to India. Many of the raw goods were agricultural products such as jute (a fiber from the jute plant mainly used for twine and burlap) and opium. How did the British trade opium and with whom did they trade opium?
-British traded opium through boats and traded it with China (in exchange for tea)
List two of the negative effects of British presence and list three positive effects for India.
Negative= 1. British held most of the political and economic power 2. restricted Indian-owned companies and Indian traditions (racist attitudes)
Positive= 1. laying the world’s 3rd largest railroad which enabled India to develop a modern road network/economy and brought unity 2. development of a modern road network. telephone, telegraph lines, dams, bridges, and irrigation canals modernize India (literacy also improves 3. British troops cleared central India of bandits and put an end to local warfare among competing local rulers
How many servants did a British officer’s wife have while residing in India?
-20 to 30 servants
What did Indians resent about the British presence in their country?
British tried to convert them to Christianity and Indians resented the constant British racism expressed towards them
Why did some Sepoys refuse to accept the cartridges of their new rifles?
-cartridges were made with grease of port and beef fat and they had to bite the end of it for them to be useful-Hindus do not eat pork because they consider the cow sacred
The jailing of the Sepoys who refused to use the cartridges led to a rebellion of Indian soldiers in 1857 who were able to take over the city Delhi. As the Sepoy Mutiny spread, the British eventually crushed the rebellion. List one reason for the failure of the rebellion.
-could not unity against the British because of poor leadership and serious splits between Hindus and Muslims
Why was the Sepoy Mutiny a turning point in India’s history?
-1858- British government took direct command of India
Define Raj
-reference to *British rule* after India came under the British crown during the reign of Queen Victoria
Who directed policy in Inda and who carried our British policy in India?
-directed: cabinet minister in London
-carried out: British governor-general in India
What did Ram Mohun Roy, the “Father of Modern India” want to change in India?
-traditional practices and ideas
Explain why Indians felt like they were second class citizens in their own country.
-they were on the lowest level of their social system, Indian Civil Service: they were payed 20x less
What did both the National Congress and the Muslim League begin to demand by the early 1900s?
-self government