What were some important factors that helped set the stage for reform?
-fundamental social and economic changes and political crises that eroded state authority
-the impact of political ideas derived from the Enlightenment
-financial crises generated by war expenses
-the impact of political ideas derived from the Enlightenment
-financial crises generated by war expenses
What did nobles in France enjoy?
Nobles in France enjoyed not only exemption from taxation but also exclusive rights to hunt game, bear swords, and wear gold ribbon in their clothing.
How was european society divided into groups?
Eighteenth-century European society was still legally divided into groups with special privileges, such as the nobility and the clergy, and groups with special burdens, such as the peasantry.
What did middle- class groups enjoy?
various middle-class groups—professionals, merchants, and guild masters—enjoyed privileges that allowed them to monopolize all sorts of economic activity.
What happened Due to increased agricultural production?
Europe’s population rose rapidly after 1750, and its cities and towns swelled in size.
What did inflation do?
Inflation kept pace with demography, making it ever more difficult for urban people to find affordable food and living space.
What was one way urban people kept up, and managed to participate in the new consumer revolution?
by working harder and for longer hours.
What did the growth of the economy create?
The growth of the economy created new inequalities between rich and poor. While the poor struggled with rising prices, investors who sponsored overseas trade or the spread of manufacture in the countryside reaped great profits. Old distinctions between landed aristocracy and city merchant began to fade as enterprising nobles put money into trade and rising middle-class bureaucrats and merchants bought landed estates and noble titles.
What were the bourgeoisie and what did they serve?
Marriages between proud nobles and wealthy, educated commoners. They served both groups’ interests, and a mixed-caste elite began to take shape.
What was another social change?
Another social change involved the racial regimes established in European colonies to enable and protect slavery.
By the late eighteenth century European law accepted what?
that only Africans and people of African descent were subject to slavery. Even free people of color—a term for non-slaves of African or mixed African-European descent—were subject to special laws restricting the property they could own, whom they could marry, and what clothes they could wear.
The call for liberty was first of all?
A call for human rights
Supporters of the cause of individual liberty demanded what?
freedom to worship according to the dictates of their consciences, an end to censorship, and freedom from arbitrary laws and from judges who simply obeyed orders from the government.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, proclaimed what?
Proclaimed that “Liberty consists in being able to do anything that does not harm another person.”
The call for liberty was also a call for?
A new kind of government
What did reformers believe?
Reformers believed that the people had sovereignty—that is, that the people alone had the authority to make laws limiting an individual’s freedom of action.
In practice, this system of government meant?
Choosing legislators who represented the people and were accountable to them. Monarchs might retain their thrones, but their rule should be constrained by the will of the people.
Eighteenth-century liberals argued that?
all citizens should have identical rights and liberties and that the nobility had no right to special privileges based on birth.
What distinctions did they accept?
First, most eighteenth-century liberals were men of their times, and they generally believed that equality between men and women was neither practical nor desirable. Women played an important political role in the French Revolution at several points, but the men of the French Revolution limited formal political rights—the right to vote, to run for office, to participate in government—to men. Second, few questioned the inequality between blacks and whites. Even those who believed that the slave trade was unjust and should be abolished, such as Thomas Jefferson, usually felt that abolition was so socially and economically dangerous that it needed to be indefinitely postponed. Finally, liberals never believed that everyone should be equal economically.
Great differences in wealth and income between rich and poor were perfectly acceptable. The essential point was that?
every free male should have a legally equal chance at economic gain.
Who were The two most important thinkers to use Enlightenment goals of personal freedom and legal equality to justify liberal self-government?
John Locke and the baron de Montesquieu.
What did Locke maintain?
Locke maintained that England’s long political tradition rested on “the rights of Englishmen” and on representative government through Parliament. He argued that if a government oversteps its proper function of protecting the natural rights of life, liberty, and private property, it becomes a tyranny.
What did Montesquieu believe?
Montesquieu was also inspired by English constitutional history and the Glorious Revolution, which placed sovereignty in Parliament. He, too, believed that powerful “intermediary groups”—such as the judicial nobility of which he was a proud member—offered the best defense of liberty against despotism.
The belief that representative institutions could defend their liberty and interests appealed powerfully to the
Yet liberal ideas about individual rights and political freedom also appealed to members of the
Representative government did not mean
Rather, they envisioned voting for representatives as being restricted to
men who owned property
Revolutions thus began with
aspirations for equality and liberty among the social elite
Soon, however, dissenting voices emerged as some revolutionaries became frustrated with the limitations of classical liberal notions of equality and liberty and clamored for a fuller realization of these concepts. Depending on location, their demands included:
political rights for women and free people of color, the emancipation of slaves, and government regulation to guarantee fair access to resources and to impose economic equality.
Where did the seven year’s war take place?
from central Europe to India to North America (where the conflict was known as the French and Indian War), pitting a new alliance of England and Prussia against the French and Austrians.
What were the origins of the seven years war?
Its origins were in conflicts left unresolved at the end of the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748
Describe the Seven years year.
In central Europe, Austria’s Maria Theresa vowed to win back Silesia, which Prussia took in the war of succession, and to crush Prussia, thereby re-establishing the Habsburgs’traditional leadership in German affairs. By the end of the Seven Years’ War Maria Theresa had almost succeeded, but Prussia survived with its boundaries intact.
The encroachment of English settlers into territory claimed by the French in the Ohio Valley resulted in
skirmishes that soon became war
Although the inhabitants of New France were greatly outnumbered—Canada counted fifty-five thousand inhabitants, compared to 1.2 million in the thirteen English colonies—French forces
achieved major victories until 1758.
What happened next?
Then, the British diverted resources from the war in Europe, using superior sea power to destroy the French fleet and choke off French commerce around the world. In 1759 the British laid siege to Quebec for four long months, finally defeating the French in a battle that sealed the fate of France in North America.
British victory on all colonial fronts was ratified in the
1763 Treaty of Paris
What were the results of the 1763 Treaty of Paris?
Canada and all French territory east of the Mississippi River passed to Britain, and France ceded Louisiana to Spain as compensation for Spain’s loss of Florida to Britain. France also gave up most of its holdings in India, opening the way to British dominance on the subcontinent
By 1763 Britain had realized its goal of
monopolizing a vast trading and colonial empire, but at a tremendous cost in war debt. France emerged from the conflict humiliated and broke, but with its profitable Caribbean colonies intact.
In the aftermath of war, both British and French governments had to
raise taxes to repay loans, raising a storm of protest and demands for fundamental reform. Since the Caribbean colony of Saint-Domingue remained French, revolutionary turmoil in the mother country would directly affect its population.
The high cost of the Seven Years’ War doubled the
British National Debt
Breaking with tradition, the British announced that they would
maintain a large army in North America and tax the colonies directly.
In 1765 Parliament passed the Stamp Act, which
levied taxes on a long list of commercial and legal documents, diplomas, newspapers, almanacs, and playing cards. A stamp glued to each article indicated that the tax had been paid.
These measures seemed perfectly reasonable to the British, for a much heavier stamp tax already existed in Britain, and proceeds from the tax were to fund the
Defense of the colonies
Why did Parliament repel the Stamp Act?
Because the colonists vigorously protested the Stamp Act by rioting and by boycotting British goods.
This dispute raised important political questions. To what extent could the British government reassert its power while limiting the authority of elected colonial bodies? Who had the right to make laws for Americans? The British government replied that?
Americans were represented in Parliament, albeit indirectly (like most British people), and that Parliament ruled throughout the empire. Many Americans felt otherwise. In the words of John Adams, a major proponent of colonial independence, “A Parliament of Great Britain can have no more rights to tax the colonies than a Parliament of Paris.” Thus British colonial administration and parliamentary supremacy came to appear as grave threats to existing American liberties.
Americans’ resistance to these threats was fed by the great degree of
independence they had long enjoyed. In British North America, unlike in England and Europe, no powerful established church existed, and religious freedom was taken for granted. Colonial assemblies made the important laws, which were seldom overturned by the British government. Also, the right to vote was much more widespread than in England. In many parts of colonial Massachusetts, for example, as many as 95 percent of adult males could vote.
Who dominated colonial society?
Under the Tea Act of that year, the British government permitted
the financially hard-pressed East India Company to ship tea from China directly to its agents in the colonies rather than through London middlemen, who sold to independent merchants in the colonies. Thus the company secured a profitable monopoly on the tea trade, and colonial merchants were excluded.
The price on tea was actually lowered for colonists, but the act generated a great deal of opposition because of the
monopoly it gave to the East India Company.
In protest, Boston men disguised
In protest, Boston men disguised as Native Americans had a rowdy Tea Party in which they boarded East India Company ships and threw tea from them into the harbor.
In response, the so-called Coercive Acts of 1774 did what?
closed the port of Boston, curtailed local elections, and expanded the royal governor’s power.
In September 1774, the First Continental Congress—consisting of colonial delegates who sought at first to peacefully resolve conflicts with Britain—met in
Philadelphia. The more radical members of this assembly argued successfully against concessions to the English crown. The British Parliament also rejected compromise, and in April 1775 fighting between colonial and British troops began at Lexington and Concord.
The uncompromising attitude of the British government and its use of German mercenaries did much to
dissolve loyalties to the home country and to unite the separate colonies.
Common Sense (1775), a brilliant attack by the recently arrived English radical Thomas Paine (1737-1809), also mobilized
public opinion in favor of independence.
Paine’s tract ridiculed the idea of a small island ruling a
On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the
Declaration of Independence.
What did the Declaration of Independence list?
Written by Thomas Jefferson and others, this document boldly listed the tyrannical acts committed by George III (r. 1760-1820) and confidently proclaimed the natural rights of mankind and the sovereignty of the American states.
What was the effect of the Declaration of Independence?
The Declaration of Independence in effect universalized the traditional rights of English people and made them the rights of all mankind. It stated that “all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.”
After the Declaration of Independence, the conflict often took the form of a
civil war pitting patriots against Loyalists, those who maintained an allegiance to the Crown.
Describe the Loyalists.
The Loyalists tended to be wealthy and politically moderate. Many patriots—such as John Hancock and George Washington—were also wealthy, but they willingly allied themselves with farmers and artisans in a broad coalition. This coalition harassed the Loyalists and confiscated their property to help pay for the war, causing more than thirty thousand of them to flee, mostly to Canada.
On the international scene, the French wanted revenge against the British for
the humiliating defeats of the Seven Years’ War. Thus they sympathized with the rebels and supplied guns and gunpowder from the beginning of the conflict.
Who was Lafayette?
a dashing young nobleman. He quickly became one of the most trusted generals of George Washington, who was commanding American troops.
In 1778 the French government offered a formal alliance to the
American ambassador in Paris, Benjamin Franklin, and in 1779 and 1780 the Spanish and Dutch declared war on Britain.
Catherine the Great of Russia helped organize the League of Armed Neutrality to protect
neutral shipping rights and succeeded in hampering Britain’s naval power. Thus by 1780 Britain was engaged in an imperial war against most of Europe as well as the thirteen colonies.
In these circumstances, and in the face of severe reverses in India, in the West Indies, and at Yorktown in Virginia, a new British government decided to
cut its losses and end the war.
American officials in Paris were receptive to negotiating a deal with England alone, for they feared that
France wanted a treaty that would bottle up the new United States east of the Allegheny Mountains and give British holdings west of the Alleghenies to France’s ally, Spain. Thus the American negotiators deserted their French allies and accepted the extraordinarily favorable terms Britain offered.
Under the Treaty of Paris of 1783, Britain recognized
the independence of the thirteen colonies and ceded all its territory between the Allegheny Mountains and the Mississippi River to the Americans.
Assembling in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention were determined to
end the period of economic depression, social uncertainty, and leadership under a weak central government that had followed independence.
The delegates thus decided to grant the federal, or central, government important powers:
regulation of domestic and foreign trade, the right to tax, and the means to enforce its laws.
Strong rule would be placed squarely in the context of
Senators and congressmen would be the lawmaking delegates of the voters, and the president of the republic would be an
The central government would operate in Montesquieu’s framework of checks and balances, under which authority was distributed across three different branches—
the executive, legislative, and judicial branches—that would systematically balance one another, preventing one interest from gaining too much power. The power of the federal government would in turn be checked by that of the individual states
When the results of the secret deliberations of the Constitutional Convention were presented to the states for ratification,
A great public debate
The opponents of the proposed Constitution—the __________—charged that the framers of the new document had taken too much power from the individual states and made the federal government too strong.
To overcome these objections, the Federalists promised to spell out these basic freedoms as soon as the new Constitution was adopted. The result was
the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which the first Congress passed shortly after it met in New York in March 1789. These amendments, ratified in 1791, formed an effective Bill of Rights to safeguard the individual.
Most of them—trial by jury, due process of law, the right to assemble, freedom from unreasonable search—had their origins in
English law and the English Bill of Rights of 1689. Other rights—the freedoms of speech, the press, and religion—reflected natural-law theory and the strong value colonists had placed on independence from the start.
Like the French republic that was soon to emerge, the early American republic also sought to advance the rights of
African Americans, and many free people of color voted in elections to ratify the Constitution.
What early measures were eroded in the early nineteenth century as abolitionist fervor waned?
Congress banned slavery in federal territory in 1789, voting rights for free people of colorthen the export of slaves from any state, and finally, in 1808, the import of slaves to any state.
The American Constitution and the Bill of Rights exemplified the great strengths and the limits of what came to be called
individual freedoms and political safeguards. Liberty also meant representative government but did not necessarily mean democracy, with its principle of one person, one vote.
equality before the law, not equality of political participation or wealth. It did not mean equal rights for women, slaves, or indigenous peoples.
As did the American Revolution, the French Revolution had its immediate origins in the
financial difficulties of the government.
The efforts of the ministers of King Louis XV (r. 1715-1774) to raise taxes to meet the expenses of the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War were thwarted by the
high courts, known as the parlements.
The noble judges of the parlements resented this threat to their exemption from taxation and decried the government’s actions as a form of
When renewed efforts to reform the tax system met a similar fate in 1776, the government was forced to finance its enormous expenditures during the American war with
Borrowed money. As a result, the national debt soared.
By the 1780s fully __ percent of France’s annual budget went to interest payments on the ever-increasing debt. Another __ percent went to maintain the military, while __ percent was absorbed by the royal family and the court at Versailles. Less than __ percent of the national budget was available for the productive functions of the state, such as transportation and general administration. This was an impossible financial situation.
50, 25, 6, 20,
Could the king and his ministers print money and create inflation to cover their deficits?
Unlike England and Holland, which had far larger national debts relative to their populations, France had no
central bank, no paper currency, and no means of creating credit.
Therefore, when a depressed economy and a lack of public confidence made it increasingly difficult for the government to obtain new loans in 1786, it had no alternative but to try
Because France’s tax system was unfair and out-of-date, increased revenues were possible only through
Fundamental reforms. Such reforms, which would affect all groups in France’s complex and fragmented society, were guaranteed to create social and political unrest.
Kings had always maintained mistresses, who were invariably chosen from the court nobility. Louis XV broke that pattern with Madame de Pompadour, daughter of a disgraced bourgeois financier. As the king’s favorite mistress from 1745 to 1750, Pompadour exercised tremendous influence that continued even after their love affair ended. She played a key role, for example, in bringing about
France’s break with Prussia and its new alliance with Austria in the mid-1750s.
Pompadour’s low birth and hidden political influence generated a stream of
resentful and illegal pamphleteering. The king was being stripped of the sacred aura of God’s anointed on earth (a process called desacralization) and was being reinvented in the popular imagination as a degenerate.
Despite the progressive desacralization of the monarchy, Louis XV would probably have prevailed had he lived longer, but he died in
The new king, Louis XVI
waffled on political reform and the economy, and he proved unable to quell the rising storm of opposition
Spurred by a depressed economy and falling tax receipts, Louis XVI’s minister of finance revived old proposals to impose a
general tax on all landed property as well as to form provincial assemblies to help administer the tax, and he convinced the king to call an assembly of notables in 1787 to gain support for the idea.
The assembled notables, mainly important noblemen and high-ranking clergy, declared that such sweeping tax changes required the approval of the
Estates General, the representative body of all three estates, which had not met since 1614.
Facing imminent bankruptcy, the king tried to
Reassert his authority. He dismissed the notables and established new taxes by decree. In stirring language, the judges of the Parlement of Paris promptly declared the royal initiative null and void.
When the king tried to exile the judges,
a tremendous wave of protest swept the country. Frightened investors refused to advance more loans to the state.
Finally in July 1788, a beaten Louis XVI bowed to public opinion and called for
a spring session of the Estates General. Absolute monarchy was collapsing.
As its name indicates, the Estates General was
a legislative body with representatives from the three orders of society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners.
Following centuries-old tradition each order met separately to elect delegates, first at a _____ and then at a ______ level.
The local assemblies of the clergy, representing the first estate, elected mostly
parish priests rather than church leaders, demonstrating their dissatisfaction with the church hierarchy.
The nobility, or second estate, voted in a
majority of conservatives, primarily from the provinces, where nobles were less wealthy and more numerous.
Commoners of the third estate, who constituted over 95 percent of the population, elected primarily
lawyers and government officials to represent them, with few delegates representing business and the poor.
In all three estates, voices spoke in favor of replacing
absolutism with a constitutional monarchy in which laws and taxes would require the consent of the Estates General in regular meetings. There was also the strong feeling that individual liberties would have to be guaranteed by law and that economic regulations should be loosened.
On May 5, 1789, the twelve hundred delegates of the three estates gathered in Versailles for the
opening session of the Estates General.
Despite widespread hopes for serious reform, the Estates General was almost immediately
deadlocked due to arguments about voting procedures.
Controversy had begun during the electoral process itself, when the government confirmed that, following precedent, each estate should
Meet and vote separately
During the lead-up to the Estates General, critics had demanded
a single assembly dominated by the third estate.
In his famous pamphlet “What Is the Third Estate?” the abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (himself a member of the first estate) argued that the nobility was
was a tiny, overprivileged minority and that the neglected third estate constituted the true strength of the French nation.
The government conceded that the third estate should have as many delegates as the clergy and the nobility combined, but then upheld a system granting
one vote per estate instead of one vote per person. This meant that the two privileged estates could always outvote the third, even if the third estate had a majority by head count.
The issue came to a crisis in June 1789 when delegates of the third estate refused to meet until the king ordered the
clergy and nobility to sit with them in a single body.
Finally, after six weeks, a few parish priests began to go over to the third estate, which on June 17 voted to call itself the
On June 20 the delegates of the third estate, excluded from their hall because of “repairs,” moved to a large indoor tennis court where they swore the famous
Oath of the Tennis Court, pledging not to disband until they had been recognized as a national assembly and had written a new constitution.
The king’s response was disastrously ambivalent. On June 23 he made a conciliatory speech to a joint session in which he urged reforms, and four days later he ordered the
Three estates to meet together
The king called an army of eighteen thousand troops toward the capital to bring the delegates under control, and on July 11 he dismissed his finance minister and other more liberal ministers. It appeared that the monarchy was prepared to renege on its promises for reform and to use
Violence to restore its control
A poor grain harvest in 1788 caused the price of bread to
soar suddenly and inflation spread quickly through the economy.
As a result, demand for manufactured goods
collapsed, and many artisans and small traders lost work.
They believed that, to survive, they should have
steady work and enough bread at fair prices.
They also feared that the dismissal of the king’s liberal finance minister would put them at the mercy of
aristocratic landowners and grain speculators.
On July 14, 1789, several hundred people stormed the
Bastille (ba-STEEL), a royal prison, to obtain weapons and gunpowder for the city’s defense.
Faced with popular violence, Louis soon announced the
reinstatement of his finance minister and the withdrawal of troops from Paris. The National Assembly was now free to continue its work without the threat of royal military intervention.
In the summer of 1789, throughout France peasants began to
rise in insurrection against their lords, ransacking manor houses and burning feudal documents that recorded their obligations. In some areas peasants reoccupied common lands enclosed by landowners and seized forests.
Fear of marauders and vagabonds hired by vengeful landlords—called the ______ by contemporaries—seized the rural poor and fanned the flames of rebellion.
By a decree of the assembly, all the old noble privileges—peasant serfdom where it still existed, exclusive hunting rights, fees for having legal cases judged in the lord’s court, the right to make peasants work on the roads, and a host of other dues—were
abolished along with the tithes paid to the church.
On August 27,1789, the National Assembly issued the
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
Why did the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantee?
This clarion call of the liberal revolutionary ideal guaranteed equality before the law, representative government for a sovereign people, and individual freedom. This revolutionary credo, only two pages long, was disseminated throughout France, the rest of Europe, and around the world.
The National Assembly’s declaration had little practical effect for the
Poor and hungry people of Paris
The economic crisis worsened after the fall of the Bastille, as aristocrats fled the country and the __________ collapsed.
Foreign markets also shrank, and unemployment among the ________________ grew.
urban working class
In addition, women—the traditional managers of food and resources in poor homes—could no longer look to the church, which had been stripped of its tithes, for
On October 5 some seven thousand women marched the twelve miles from ______ to ________ to demand action.
The women invaded the royal apartments, killed some of the royal bodyguards, and searched for the queen, ___________, who was widely despised for her frivolous and supposedly immoral behavior.
It seems likely that only the intervention of ________ and the National Guard saved the royal family.
But the only way to calm the disorder was for the king to live closer to his people in _____, as the crowd demanded.
In June 1790 the National Assembly abolished the nobility and in July the king swore to uphold the as-yet-unwritten constitution, effectively enshrining a ______________.
The king remained the head of state, but all law-making power now resided in the _______, elected by the wealthiest half of French males.
The constitution finally passed in September 1791 and, reluctantly recognized by Louis XVI, was the first in French history. It broadened women’s rights to
seek divorce, to inherit property, and to obtain financial support for illegitimate children from fathers, but excluded women from political office and voting.
This decision was attacked by a small number of men and women who believed that the rights of man should be extended to all __________.
Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793), a self-taught writer and woman of the people, protested the
evils of slavery as well as the injustices done to women. In September 1791 she published her “Declaration of the Rights of Woman.”
In addition to ruling on women’s rights, the National Assembly replaced the complicated patchwork of historic provinces with __________________________, a move toward more rational and systematic methods of administration.
eighty-three departments of approximately equal size
What was abolished in the name of economic liberty?
Monopolies, guilds, and workers’ associations were prohibited, and barriers to trade within France
Thus the National Assembly applied the spirit of the _______________ in a thorough reform of France’s laws and institutions.
The National Assembly granted religious freedom to the small minority of French _____________.
Jews and Protestants
Furthermore, in November 1789 The National Assembly nationalized the Catholic Church’s property and abolished __________.
The government used all former church property as collateral to guarantee a new paper currency, ____________, and then sold the property in an attempt to put the state’s finances on a solid footing.
in July 1790, with the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, they established a national church with priests chosen by _______.
The National Assembly then forced the Catholic clergy to take an oath of ______ to the new government.
The pope formally condemned this attempt to subjugate the church, and only ______ the priests of France swore the oath
The attempt to remake the Catholic Church, like the abolition of guilds and workers’ associations, sharpened the conflict between the _______________that had been emerging in the eighteenth century.
educated classes and the common people
Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) concluded that
“The Revolution is over.”
On the one hand, liberals and radicals saw a mighty triumph of liberty over despotism. On the other hand, conservative leaders such as British statesman Edmund Burke (1729-1797) were troubled by the aroused spirit of _______.
In 1790 Burke published Reflections on the Revolution in France, in which he defended inherited privileges. He glorified Britain’s unrepresentative Parliament and predicted that reform like that occurring in France would lead only to ________________.
chaos and tyranny
Mary Wollstonecraft’s book became a founding text of the ____________.
In June 1791 Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were arrested and returned to Paris after trying unsuccessfully to slip out of France.
slip out of France.
To supporters of the revolution, the attempted flight was proof that the king was treacherously seeking foreign support for an
invasion of France
To the monarchs of Austria and Prussia, the arrest of a crowned monarch was unacceptable. Two months later they issued the ________________, which professed their willingness to intervene in France to restore Louis XVI’s rule if necessary.
Declaration of Pillnitz
The new French representative body, called the ________________, that convened in October 1791 had completely new delegates and a different character.
Many of the delegates belonged to the ___________.
The Jacobins and other deputies reacted with patriotic fury to the Declaration of Pillnitz. In April 1792 France declared war on
Francis II, the Habsburg monarch
Prussian forces joined Austria against the French, who broke and _______ at their first military encounter with this First Coalition of the foreign powers united against the revolution.
The Legislative Assembly declared the country in danger, and volunteers rallied to the ______.
In this wartime atmosphere, rumors of treason by the king and queen spread in Paris. On August 10, 1792, a revolutionary crowd attacked the royal palace at the _____________, while the king and his family fled for their lives to the nearby Legislative Assembly.
Rather than offering refuge, the Assembly suspended the king from all his functions, imprisoned him, and called for a legislative and constitutional assembly to be elected by ______________].
universal male suffrage
The fall of the monarchy marked a rapid radicalization of the revolution, a phase that historians often call the
In late September 1792 the new, popularly elected National Convention, which replaced the Legislative Assembly, proclaimed France a __________, a nation in which the people, instead of a monarch, held sovereign power.
All the members of the National Convention were republicans, and at the beginning almost all belonged to the Jacobin club of Paris. But the Jacobins themselves were increasingly divided into two bitterly opposed groups—___________ and the ________, led by Robespierre and another young lawyer, Georges Jacques Danton.
This division emerged clearly after the National Convention overwhelmingly convicted Louis XVI of treason. The Girondists accepted his guilt but did not wish to put the king to death. By a narrow majority, the Mountain carried the day, and Louis was executed on January 21, 1793, by ________, which the French had recently perfected.
But both the Girondists and the Mountain were determined to continue the
“war against tyranny.”
The Prussians had been stopped at the ______________ on September 20, 1792, one day before the republic was proclaimed. French armies then invaded Savoy and captured Nice, moved into the German Rhineland, and by November 1792 were occupying the entire Austrian Netherlands
Battle of Valmy
Everywhere they went, French armies of occupation
chased princes, abolished feudalism, and found support among some peasants and middleclass people. But French armies also lived off the land, requisitioning food and supplies and plundering local treasures.
In February 1793 the National Convention, at war with Austria and Prussia, declared war on
Britain, Holland, and Spain as well.
Peasants in western France revolted against being drafted into the ______, with the Vendée region of Brittany emerging as the epicenter of revolt. Devout Catholics, royalists, and foreign agents encouraged their rebellion, and the counter-revolutionaries recruited veritable armies to fight for their cause.
In March 1793 the National Convention was locked in a life-and-death political struggle between members of the Mountain and the more moderate Girondists. With the middle-class delegates so bitterly divided, the __________ of Paris once again emerged as the decisive political factor.
The laboring poor and the petty traders were often known as the _________ (“without breeches”) because their men wore trousers instead of the knee breeches of the aristocracy and the solid middle class.
The Mountain, sensing an opportunity to out-maneuver the Girondists, joined with sans-culottes activists to engineer a popular ________.
On June 2, 1793, armed sans-culottes invaded the Convention and forced its deputies to arrest twenty-nine Girondist deputies for treason. All power passed to the ________.
The Convention also formed the Committee of Public Safety in April 1793 to deal with
the threats from within and outside France.
The committee, which __________ led, held dictatorial power to deal with the national emergency, allowing it to use whatever force necessary to defend the Revolution.
Moderates in leading provincial cities revolted against the committee’s power and demanded a __________ government.
Moderates in leading provincial cities revolted against the committee’s power and demanded a decentralized government.
Counter-revolutionary forces in the Vendée won significant victories, and the republic’s armies were driven back on all fronts. By July 1793 only the areas around Paris and on the eastern frontier were firmly held by the ___________.
A year later, in July 1794, the central government had reasserted control over the provinces, and the _________________________ were once again in French hands.
Austrian Netherlands and the Rhineland
This remarkable change of fortune was due to the revolutionary government’s success in harnessing the
explosive forces of a planned economy, revolutionary terror, and modern nationalism in a total war effort.
Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety advanced on several fronts in 1793 and 1794, seeking to impose ___________________ across the nation.
First, they collaborated with the ___________, who continued pressing the common people’s case for fair prices and a moral economic order and who distrusted most wealthy capitalists and all aristocrats.
Rather than let supply and demand determine prices, the government set _______________ prices for key products.
The people were also put to work, mainly producing arms and munitions for the war effort. Through these economic reforms the second revolution produced an emergency form of __________, which thoroughly frightened Europe’s propertied classes and greatly influenced the subsequent development of socialist ideology.
Second, while radical economic measures supplied the poor with bread and the armies with weapons, the __________________ enforced compliance with republican beliefs and practices.
Reign of Terror
Special revolutionary courts responsible only to Robespierre’s Committee of Public Safety tried “enemies of the nation” for political crimes. As a result, some __________ French men and women were executed or died in prison.
In their efforts to impose unity, the Jacobins took actions to suppress women’s participation in ___________, which they perceived as disorderly and a distraction from women’s proper place in the home.
Beyond imposing political unity by force, the Terror also sought to bring the revolution into all aspects of ____________.
Moreover, the government attempted to rationalize French daily life by adopting the decimal system for weights and measures and a new calendar based on ten-day weeks.
the decimal system for weights and measures and a new calendar based on ten-day weeks.
Another important element of this cultural revolution was the campaign of de-Christianization, which aimed to eliminate
Catholic symbols and beliefs.
The third and perhaps most decisive element in the French republic’s victory over the First Coalition was its ability to draw on the power of
patriotic dedication to a national state and a national mission.
With a common language and a common tradition newly reinforced by the ideas of popular sovereignty and democracy, large numbers of French people were stirred by a
common loyalty. They developed an intense emotional commitment to the defense of the nation, and they saw the war against foreign opponents as a life-and-death struggle between good and evil.
After August 1793 all unmarried young men were subject to the draft, and by January 1794 French armed forces outnumbered those of their enemies almost _______.
four to one
By spring 1794 French armies were victorious on all fronts. The republic was ______.
In March 1794 Robespierre’s Terror wiped out many of his critics. Two weeks later Robespierre sent long-standing collaborators whom he believed had turned against him, including Danton, to the ________.
A group of radicals and moderates in the Convention, knowing that they might be next, organized a _________. They howled down Robespierre when he tried to speak to the National Convention on July 27,1794—a date known as 9 Thermidor according to France’s newly adopted republican calendar. The next day it was Robespierre’s turn to be guillotined.
As Robespierre’s closest supporters followed their leader to the guillotine, the respectable middle-class lawyers and professionals who had led the liberal revolution of 1789 reasserted their ________.
This period of Thermidorian reaction, as it was called, harkened back to the beginnings of the Revolution, rejecting the ___________________ in favor of moderate policies that favored property owners.
radicalism of the sans-culottes
In 1795 the National Convention abolished
many economic controls, let prices rise sharply, and severely restricted the local political organizations through which the sans-culottes exerted their strength.
After the Convention used the army to suppress the sans-culottes’ protests, the urban poor lost their __________________.
In 1795 the middle-class members of the National Convention wrote yet another constitution to guarantee their
economic position and political supremacy
As in previous elections, the mass of the population voted only for ______, whose number was cut back to men of substantial means.
Electors then voted for members of a reorganized ________________to replace the National Convention and for key officials throughout France.
The new assembly also chose a five-man executive body called the ______.
This general dissatisfaction revealed itself clearly in the national elections of 1797, which returned a large number of conservative and even monarchist deputies who favored _____ at almost any price.
The members of the Directory, fearing for their skins, used the army to nullify the elections and began to govern _______.
Two years later Napoleon Bonaparte ended the Directory in a ___________and substituted a strong dictatorship for a weak one.
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) realized the need to put an end to _________ in France in order to create unity and consolidate his rule.
Describe Napolean Bonaparte.
Born on the Mediterranean island of Corsica into an impoverished noble family, Napoleon left home and became a lieutenant in the French artillery in 1785. After a brief and unsuccessful adventure fighting for Corsican independence in 1789, he returned to France as a French patriot and a revolutionary. Rising rapidly in the new army, Napoleon was placed in command of French forces in Italy and won brilliant victories there in 1796 and 1797. His next campaign, in Egypt, was a failure, but Napoleon returned to France before the fiasco was generally known, and his reputation remained intact.
Napoleon soon learned that some prominent members of the legislature were plotting against the ________.
Directory. The dissatisfaction of these plotters stemmed not so much from the fact that the Directory was a dictatorship as from the fact that it was a weak dictatorship.
The flamboyant thirty-year-old Napoleon, nationally revered for his heroism, was an ideal choice for the strong ruler the conspirators were seeking. Thus they and Napoleon organized a ________.
On November 9, 1799, they ousted the Directors, and the following day soldiers disbanded the legislature. Napoleon was named _____________, and a new constitution consolidating his position was overwhelmingly approved in a plebiscite in December 1799.
first consul of the republic
The essence of Napoleon’s domestic policy was to use his popularity and charisma to maintain order and end civil strife. He did so by working out
unwritten agreements with powerful groups in France whereby the groups received favors in return for loyal service.
Napoleon’s bargain with the middle class was codified in the famous Civil Code of March 1804, also known as ______________.
the Napoleonic Code
The Napoleonic code reasserted two of the fundamental principles of the revolution of 1789:
equality of all male citizens before the law and absolute security of wealth and private property.
At the same time, Napoleon built on the _________ inherited from the Revolution and the former monarchy to create a thoroughly centralized state.
Napoleon consolidated his rule by
recruiting disillusioned revolutionaries for the network of government officials; they depended on him and came to serve him well.
In 1800 and again in 1802 Napoleon granted _______ to one hundred thousand noble émigrés on the condition that they return to France and take a loyalty oath. Members of this returning elite soon ably occupied many high posts in the expanding centralized state.
Furthermore, Napoleon applied his diplomatic skills to healing the Catholic Church in France so that it could serve as a bulwark of ________.
Napoleon and Pope Pius VII (pontificate 1800-1823) signed the ______________. Under this agreement the pope gained the right for French Catholics to practice their religion freely, but Napoleon gained political power: his government now nominated bishops, paid the clergy, and exerted great influence over the church in France.
Concordat of 1801
The ______________ of Napoleon’s early years were his greatest achievement, and much of his legal and administrative reorganization has survived in France to this day.
More generally, Napoleon’s domestic initiatives gave the great majority of French people a sense of _______ and __________.
stability, national unity
Under the new Napoleonic Code, women were regarded as _________ of either their fathers or their husbands, and they could not make contracts or have bank accounts in their own names.
Napoleon aimed at re-establishing a ______________, where the power of the husband and father was as absolute over the wife and the children as that of Napoleon over his subjects.
In other restrictions, _____________________ were curtailed, and the occasional elections were thoroughly controlled by Napoleon and his government.
free speech and freedom of the press
After coming to power in 1799 Napoleon sent peace feelers to ______ and _________, the two remaining members of the Second Coalition that had been formed against France in 1798.
Austria and Britain
When these overtures were rejected, French armies led by Napoleon decisively defeated the Austrians. In the ____________________ b, Austria accepted the loss of almost all its Italian possessions, and German territory on the west bank of the Rhine was incorporated into France.
Treaty of Lunéville (1801)
The British agreed to the ____________________, allowing France to remain in control of Holland, the Austrian Netherlands, the west bank of the Rhine, and most of the Italian peninsula.
Treaty of Amiens in 1802
Aggressively redrawing the map of Germany so as to weaken Austria and encourage the secondary states of southwestern Germany to side with France, Napoleon tried to restrict ___________ with all of Europe.
He then plotted to attack Britain, but his Mediterranean fleet was destroyed by Lord Nelson at the Battle of ________ on October 21, 1805.
Renewed fighting had its advantages, however, for the first consul used his high status as a military leader to have himself proclaimed ________ in late 1804.
Austria, Russia, and Sweden joined with Britain to form the _____________ against France shortly before the Battle of Trafalgar.
Yet the Austrians and the Russians were no match for Napoleon, who scored a brilliant victory over them at the Battle of ________ in December 1805.
Russia decided to pull back, and Austria accepted large territorial losses in return for peace as the Third Coalition ________.
Napoleon then reorganized the German states to his liking. In 1806 he abolished many tiny German states as well as the __________________ and established by decree the German Confederation of the Rhine
Holy Roman Empire
What was the German Confederation of the Rhine?
a union of fifteen German states minus Austria, Prussia, and Saxony. Naming himself “protector” of the confederation, Napoleon firmly controlled western Germany.
Napoleon’s intervention in German affairs alarmed the Prussians, who mobilized their armies. In October 1806 Napoleon attacked them and won two more brilliant victories at Jena and Auerstädt, where the Prussians were outnumbered _____ to ___.
2 to 1
In the treaties of ____in 1807, Prussia lost half of its population through land concessions, while Russia accepted Napoleon’s reorganization of western and central Europe and promised to enforce Napoleon’s economic blockade against British goods.
What was the first part of Napoleans Grand Empire?
The core, or first part, was an ever-expanding France, which by 1810 included Belgium, Holland, parts of northern Italy, and much German territory on the east bank of the Rhine
What was the second part of Napoleans Grand Empire?
The second part consisted of a number of dependent satellite kingdoms.
What was the third part of Napoleans Grand Empire?
The third part comprised the independent but allied states of Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
After 1806 both satellites and allies were expected to support Napoleon’s __________________, a blockade in which no ship coming from Britain or her colonies was permitted to dock at any port that was controlled by the French.
The blockade was intended to
halt all trade between Britain and continental Europe, thereby destroying the British economy and its military force.
In the areas incorporated into France and in the satellites, Napoleon abolished _________ and ________.
feudal dues, serfdom
Levying heavy taxes in money and men for his armies, Napoleon came to be regarded more as a conquering ______ than as an enlightened liberator.
Thus French rule sparked patriotic upheavals and encouraged the growth of reactive __________.
In 1808 a coalition of Catholics, monarchists, and patriots rebelled against Napoleon’s attempts to make Spain a French ________. French armies occupied Madrid, but the foes of Napoleon fled to the hills and waged uncompromising guerrilla warfare. Events in Spain sent a clear warning: resistance to French imperialism was growing.
The Continental System was a failure. Instead of harming Britain, the system provoked this foe to set up a ____________, which created hard times for French artisans and the middle class.
Perhaps looking for a scapegoat, Napoleon turned on Alexander I of Russia, who in 1811 openly ________ Napoleon’s war of prohibitions against British goods.
Napoleon’s invasion of Russia began in June 1812. Originally, he planned to winter in the Russian city of Smolensk if Alexander did not sue for peace. However, after reaching Smolensk Napoleon recklessly pressed on toward ________.
The Battle of ________ that followed was a draw, and the Russians retreated in good order. Alexander ordered the evacuation of Moscow, which the Russians then burned in part, and he refused to negotiate.
Finally, after five weeks in the scorched and abandoned city, Napoleon ordered a disastrous retreat. The Russian army, the Russian winter, and starvation cut Napoleon’s army to ______.
Leaving his troops to their fate, Napoleon raced to Paris to raise another army. Possibly he might still have saved his throne if he had been willing to accept a France reduced to its historical size—the proposal offered by Austria’s foreign minister, _______________. But Napoleon refused.
Prince Klemens von Metternich
Consequently, Austria and Prussia deserted Napoleon and joined Russia and Britain in the Treaty of _________ in March 1814, by which the four powers pledged allegiance to defeat the French emperor.
All across Europe patriots called for a “war of ________” against Napoleon’s oppression. Less than a month later, on April 4, 1814, a defeated Napoleon abdicated his throne.
After this unconditional abdication, the victorious allies granted Napoleon the island of ___ off the coast of Italy as his own tiny state.
The allies also agreed to the restoration of the _______ dynasty under Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824) and promised to treat France with leniency in a peace settlement.
The new monarch tried to consolidate support among the people by issuing the ___________________, which accepted many of France’s revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties.
Hearing of political unrest in France and diplomatic tensions in Vienna, Napoleon staged a daring escape from ____ in February 1815.
Landing in France, he issued appeals for support and marched on Paris. French officers and soldiers who had fought so long for their emperor responded to the call. Louis XVIII fled, and once more Napoleon took __________. But Napoleon’s gamble was a desperate long shot, for the allies were united against him.
At the end of a frantic period known as the ________________, they crushed his forces at Waterloo on June 18,1815, and imprisoned him on the island of St. Helena, off the western coast of Africa.
As for Napoleon, he took revenge by writing his ________, nurturing the myth that he had been Europe’s revolutionary liberator, a hero whose work had been undone by oppressive reactionaries.
The colony, which occupied the western third of the island of Hispaniola, was inhabited by a variety of social groups who resented and mistrusted one another. The European population included
French colonial officials, wealthy plantation owners and merchants, and poor immigrants.
Vastly outnumbering the white population were the colony’s five hundred thousand _____, along with a sizable population of free people of African and mixed African and European descent. Members of this last group referred to themselves as “free coloreds” or free people of color.
The 1685 Code Noir (Black Code) that set the parameters of slavery had granted free people of color
the same legal status as whites: they could own property, live where they wished, and pursue any education or career they desired.
From the 1760s on, however, colonial administrators began rescinding these rights, and by the time of the French Revolution, myriad aspects of free coloreds’ lives were ruled by ____________________.
For slaves, who constituted approximately 90 percent of the population, news of abolitionist movements in France led to hopes that the
mother country might grant them freedom
Free people of color looked to reforms in Paris as a means of gaining
political enfranchisement and reasserting equal status with whites.
The white elite, not surprisingly, saw matters very differently. Infuriated by talk of abolition and determined to protect their way of life, they looked to
revolutionary ideals of representative government for the chance to gain control of their own affairs, as had the American colonists before them.
The National Assembly frustrated the hopes of all these groups. Cowed by colonial representatives who claimed that support for free people of color would result in slave insurrection and independence, the Assembly refused to extend French constitutional safeguards to the ________.
After dealing this blow to the aspirations of slaves and free coloreds, the committee also reaffirmed ______________________________, thereby angering planters as well. Like the American settlers before them, the colonists chafed under the rule of the mother country.
French monopolies over colonial trade
In July 1790 Vincent Ogé (aw-ZHAY; ca. 1750-1791), a free man of color, returned to Saint-Domingue from Paris determined to win rights for his people. He raised an army of several hundred and sent letters to the new ______________ of Saint-Domingue demanding political rights for all free citizens.
But Ogé’s demands were refused, so he and his followers turned to ______________. After initial victories, his army was defeated, and Ogé was tortured and executed by colonial officials.
Revolutionary leaders in Paris were more sympathetic to Ogé’s cause. In May 1791, responding to what it perceived as partly justified grievances, the National Assembly granted
political rights to free people of color born to two free parents who possessed sufficient property.
When news of this legislation arrived in Saint-Domingue, the white elite was furious, and the colonial governor refused to ______ it. Violence now erupted between groups of whites and free coloreds in parts of the colony.
Revolts began on a few plantations on the night of August 22. Within a few days the uprising had swept much of the northern plain, creating a slave army estimated at around ______ individuals.
By August 27 it was described by one observer as “_______ strong, divided into 3 armies, of whom 700 or 800 are on horseback, and tolerably well-armed.”6 During the next month slaves attacked and destroyed hundreds of sugar and coffee plantations.
On April 4, 1792, as war loomed with the European states, the National Assembly issued a decree extending
full citizenship rights, including the right to vote, to free blacks and free people of color.
As in France, voting rights and the ability to hold public office applied to ___ only. The Assembly hoped this measure would win the loyalty of free blacks and their aid in defeating the slave rebellion.
Since the beginning of the slave insurrection, the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo, just to the east of Saint-Domingue, had ________ rebel slaves. In early 1793 the Spanish began to bring slave leaders and their soldiers into the Spanish army.
Toussaint L’Ouverture (TOO-sahn LOO-vair-toor; 1743-1803), a freed slave who had joined the revolt, was named a Spanish ______.
In September the British navy blockaded the colony, and invading British troops captured French territory on the island. For the Spanish and British, revolutionary chaos provided a tempting opportunity to _______ a profitable colony.
Desperate for forces to oppose France’s enemies, commissioners sent by the newly elected National Convention promised ______ to slaves who fought for France.
By October 1793 they had abolished slavery throughout the colony. On February 4, 1794, the Convention ratified the abolition of slavery and extended it to all French territories, including the Caribbean colonies of _______ and _______.
The tide of battle began to turn when Toussaint L’Ouverture switched sides, bringing his military and political skills, along with four thousand well-trained soldiers, to support the _______ war effort.
By 1796 the French had regained _____ of the colony, and L’Ouverture had emerged as the key leader of the combined slave and free colored forces
In May 1796 he was named commander of the ______ province of Saint-Domingue
With Toussaint L’Ouverture acting increasingly as an independent ruler of the western province of Saint-Domingue, another general, André Rigaud (1761-1811), set up his own government in the __________ peninsula.
Tensions mounted between L’Ouverture and Rigaud. While L’Ouverture was a freed slave of African descent, Rigaud belonged to the _____________.
free colored elite
Civil war broke out between the two sides in 1799, when L’Ouverture’s forces, led by his lieutenant, Jean Jacques Dessalines (1758-1806), invaded the south. Victory over Rigaud in 1800 gave L’Ouverture control of the ______ colony.
This victory was soon challenged by Napoleon, who had his own plans for re-establishing _____ and using the profits as a basis for expanding French power.
Napoleon ordered his brother-in-law, General Charles-Victor-Emmanuel Leclerc (1772-1802), to lead an expedition to the island to crush the new _______.
In 1802 Leclerc landed in Saint-Domingue and ordered the ________ of Toussaint L’Ouverture. The rebel leader was deported to France, along with his family, where he died in 1803.
It was left to L’Ouverture’s lieutenant, ____________________, to unite the resistance, and he led it to a crushing victory over French forces.
Jean Jacques Dessalines
On January 1, 1804, Dessalines formally declared the ________________ of Saint-Domingue and the creation of the new sovereign nation of Haiti, the name used by the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the island.
Haiti, the ______ independent state in the Americas and the _____ in Latin America, was born from the first successful large-scale slave revolt in history.
Fearing the spread of slave rebellion to the United States, President Thomas Jefferson refused to recognize _____.
Yet Haitian independence had fundamental repercussions for world history, helping spread the idea that
liberty, equality, and fraternity must apply to all people