Chapter 2: The Determinants of Health

Atherosclerosis
the build-up of plaque on blood vessel walls, making it harder for blood to get through
Behavioural Determinants
actions or patterns of living of an individual or a group that impact on health, such as smoking, sexual activity, participation in physical activity and eating practices
Biological Determinants
factors relating to the body that impact on health, such as genetics, hormones, body weight, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, birth weight
Body Mass Index – BMI
a statistical measure of body mass calculated by dividing weight (in kilograms) by height (in m2). A score of 20-25 is considered a healthy weight. Anything over 25 is considered overweight and over 30 is considered obese.
Cholesterol
a type of fat required for maintaining cell membranes and producing hormones. One type of _________(LDL) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Conception
the fusing of a sperm and egg cell. Marks the beginning of pregnancy. Also known as fertilisation.
Determinants of Health
‘Factors that affect the level of health in a population or individual. __________________ help to explain or predict trends in health and why some groups have better or worse health than others.’ Determinants can be classified in many ways such as biological, behavioural and social (AIHW, 2006).
‘Fight or Flight’ Response
the body’s response to potentially threatening situations. Hormones kick into action to prepare the person to stay and fight or run (flight).
Food Insecurity
when healthy, affordable food is not obtainable
Food Security
‘the state in which all persons obtain nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate, safe food regularly through local non-emergency sources’ (VicHealth, 2008)
Hypertension
high blood pressure
Menopause
when the menstrual cycle stops permanently, ending the ability of a female to reproduce
Mutation
when the DNA in a cell is damaged or changed, permanently altering the genetic information within the cell. This can affect the function of the cell in either a positive or negative way. __________s often occur during cell reproduction.
Protective Factors
aspects of a person’s personality and environment that act to protect their health. Examples include resilience, a supportive family and a satisfying job.
Relative Poverty
refers to people who have a low income or lack resources compared to the average in the society in which they live
Social Determinants of Health
aspects of society and the social environment that impact on health, such as poverty, early life experiences, social networks and support
Social Exclusion
the segregation that people experience if they are not adequately participating in the society in which they live
Social Isolation
efers to individuals who are not in regular contact with others
Socioeconomic Status
the social standing of an individual in comparison to others in that society. It is based on education, income and occupation.
Trans Fats
types of fat that have similar effects to saturated fat. Found in small amounts naturally in some foods, ____________ are often produced by humans in a process called hydrogenation.