Chapter 2; Research and Theory in Sociology Critical Essay

Unit 2.1
Doing Research: The Need
Explain why common sense is not adequate to understand social life.
We need social research because common sense is based on limited, untested experiences and can be wrong.
This is the shorthand term for the results of sociological research.
a. research examinings
b. research attempts
c. research conclusions
d. research findings
research findings
The reason that common sense is not enough, and why we need sociological research, is
a. there is not enough of it to go around (LOL, this made me giggle)
b. the genetic structures are changing
c. common sense may or may not be true
d. common sense is manipulated by politicians
common sense may or may not be true
Common sense consists of
a. ideas that are foolish
b. assumptions about the way the world “is”
c. attempts to improve the human species
d. research findings
assumptions about the way the world “is”
Unit 2.2
Doing Research: The Model
Hypothesis
a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory
Operational Definition
the way in which a researcher measures a variable
Reliability
the extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results
Research Method
(or research design) one of the six procedures that sociologists use to collect data: surveys, secondary analysis, analysis of documents, experiments, unobtrusive measures, and participant observation.
Validity
the extent to which an operational definition measures what it is intended to measure
Variable
a factor that can vary (or change) from one person or situation to another
Summarize the research model and know its basic terms.
The eight steps of research are selecting a topic, defining the problem, reviewing the literature, formulating a hypothesis, choosing a research method, collecting the data, analyzing the findings, and sharing the findings. The basic terms are hypothesis, variable, operational definition, research method, validity, and reliability.
As sociologists do research, the eight steps of this model
a. sometimes run together
b. are rigorously separated from one another
c. are usually skipped
d. are generally expanded into ten steps
sometimes run together
A hypothesis is
a. something that varies or changes from one person or situation to another
b. an idea that turns out to be wrong
c. a carryover variable from previous research that is being applied in a new setting
d. a statement of what you expect to find; how you think variables are related to one another
a statement of what you expect to find; how you think variables are related to one another
A variable is something that
a. is quite costly
b. sociologists find as they do their research
c. varies or changes from one person or situation to another
d. manages to escape the notice of sociological researchers
varies or changes from one person or situation to another
The term operational definition refers to
a. something that varies or changes from one person or situation to another
b. the way you measure a variable
c. variables that turn out to be wrong
d. variables that turn out to be right
the way you measure a variable
The term research method (or research design) refers to
a. how you collect your data
b. the way you measure a variable
c. something that varies or changes from one person or situation to another
d. how you think variables are related to one another
how you collect your data
The term validity refers to
a. being able to draw conclusions from research
b. researchers locating the right subjects to study
c. researchers overcoming the challenge of changing circumstances
d. operational definitions measuring what they are intended to measure
operational definitions measuring what they are intended to measure
In this hypothesis, “Men who are more socially isolated are more likely to abuse their wives than men who are more socially integrated,” social isolation is an example of
a. a variable
b. an operational definition
c. validity
d. reliability
a variable
Two sociologists wanted to do research on spouse abuse. They decided to interview men who had been arrested for domestic violence. “Arrested for domestic violence” is
a. an example of validity
b. an example of reliability
c. a research method
d. an operational definition
an operational definition
Sociologists in St. Louis decided to repeat a study on spouse abuse that other sociologists had done. They used the same operational definitions. They found similar rates of spouse abuse by age and race-ethnicity. This is an example of
a. validity
b. a variable
c. reliability
d. a research method
reliability
Three sociologists were discussing research they were going to do at a boys’ school. They were concerned that their research findings would not apply to girls. In this discussion, “boys” and “girls” are
a. reliable
b. variables
c. operational definitions
d. a hypothesis
variables
Unit 2.3
Doing Research: The Methods
Closed-Ended Questions
questions that are followed by a list of possible answers to be selected by the respondent
Control Group
the subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable
Dependent Variable
a factor in an experiment that is changed by an independent variable
Documents
in its narrow sense, written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of any sort, including photographs, movies, videos, CDs, DVDs, and so on
Experiment
the use of control and experimental groups and dependent ans independent variables to test causation
Experimental Group
the group of subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable
Independent Variable
a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable
Open-Ended Questions
questions that respondents answer in their own words
Participant Observation
(or fieldwork) research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
Random Sample
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
Rapport
a feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying
Representative Sample
a sample that represents the target population
Respondents
people who respond to a survey, either in interviews or by self-administered questionnaires
Sample
the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied
Secondary Analysis
the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers
Survey
the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions
Target Population
a target group to be studied
Unobtrusive Measures
ways of observing people so they do not know they are being studied
Summarize the sic research methods.
The six basic research methods are surveys, secondary analysis, analysis of documents, experiments, unobtrusive measures, and participant observation.
State how to measure “average,” how to select good samples, what closed- and open-ended questions are, what rapport is, and how gender can affect research.
Three ways to measure average are mean, median, and mode. In the best sample, a random sample, everyone in the target population has an equal chance at being part of the sample. Closed-ended questions have specific answers to chose from. In open-ended questions, respondents reply in their own words. Rapport is trust between researcher and those being researched. People being studied can react to the sex of the researcher.
This research method consists of asking a series of questions.
a. unobtrusive measures
b. secondary analysis
c. participant observation
d. survey
survey
If you do a survey, the group you study is called your
a. study group
b. research group
c. target population
d. experimental group
target population
In, Mythville, Tennessee, a town of 35,000 people, you are going to do research on the attitudes of grade school children toward male and female action figures. Since you can’t interview all grade school children, you need a smaller number from this target group. This smaller group is called your
a. secondary group
b. sample
c. random group
d. survey group
sample
You want to do research on drug use by students at your college. For everyone in your target population to have the same chance of being included in your research, you need a
a. primary sample
b. secondary sample
c. survey sample
d. random sample
random sample
For your research on drug use to be successful, it is essential that you develop rapport with the students. Rapport refers to
a. feelings of trust between researcher and respondent
b. emotional support that a respondent gives a researcher
c. emotional support that a researcher gives a respondent
d. unanticipated changes that occur during the research process that affect your research findings
feelings of trust between researcher and respondent
If you were to analyze the data other researchers had gathered on drug use, you would be doing
a. an experiment
b. an obtrusive measure
c. participant observation
d. secondary analysis
secondary analysis
You are going to conduct an experiment to find factors that cause violence to increase or decrease. You test your subjects and use techniques to divide them randomly into two groups. You have one group watch a movie that contains scenes of violence. You then test all the subjects again. The group that watched the movie is called the
a. control group
b. experimental group
c. trial group
d. enhanced learning group
experimental group
In the experiment you are conducting on violence, the group that did not watch the move is called the
a. control group
b. experimental group
c. fallback group
d. reserve group
control group
You find that a library has a chest of diaries and bank records of immigrants from Latvia. You then analyze these records to learn about the ways that immigrants adjust to American life. You did this kind of research:
a. analysis of documents
b. secondary materials
c. participant observation
d. closed-ended sources
analysis of documents
You decide to do research on softball players. To do this research, you join a softball team. You are doing this type of research:
a. participant observation
b. survey
c. rapport building
d. secondary analysis
participant observation
Unit 2.4
Why Research Needs Theory: A Very Brief Introduction
Theory
a statement about how some parts of the world fit together, how two or more facts, conditions, or variables are related to one another
Explain why research needs theory.
Without theory, research findings are simply a collection of loose, unorganized facts. Theory is a way of tying research findings together. Theory is used to interpret research findings.
Explain why you are a theorist.
You “do theory” all the time. As a regular part of your life, you interpret things that happen to you – and things you see or that people tell you. Your world is not a buzzing mass of confusing, disconnected items. You use “frameworks of thought,” or categories, to interpret events. By doing this, you are using theory. Your “theories,” though they help you get through everyday life, are inconsistent, biased, and not rigorously tested.
“I myself use theory in everyday life.” This statement means that as part of my everyday life, I regularly fit my experiences into the way I have of thinking about life. “The way I have of thinking about life” is called my
a. relational universe
b. framework of ideas
c. objective reality
d. systemic reality
framework of ideas
Without theory, research findings are
a. haphazard
b. not proven
c. not true
d. a collection of facts
a collection of facts
A theory
a. applies ideas learned in one setting to another setting
b. consists of biased assumptions
c. ties research findings together
d. is fine for some purposes, especially ideas, but when it comes to practical matters it seldom works
ties research findings together
A framework of ideas that connects items is one definition of
a. the scientific method
b. theory
c. research methods
d. operational definitions
theory
A definition of theory is
a. a statement about how parts of the world fit together and how they work
b. the transcripts of recorded interviews
c. biased assumptions
d. research in action
a statement about how parts of the world fit together and how they work
Here is another definition of theory
a. assumptions of the best research method to apply to a research problem
b. research findings
c. the transfer of the ideas of the way things work to the actual testing of those ideas
d. an explanation of how two or more “facts” are related to one another
an explanation of how two or more “facts” are related to one another
Unit 2.5
Theoretical Perspectives: Symbolic Interactionism
Symbolic Interactionism
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
Summarize symbolic interactionism.
The central idea of symbolic interactionism is that symbols – things to which we attach meaning – are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another
Use symbolic interactionism to explain why the U.S. divorce rate is high.
The symbols that made marriage long-lasting were duty and life-long commitment. Marriage was weakened when love and emotional fulfillment became the reasons for marriage, since these are of a changing nature. The change in the meaning of parenting (more obligations for a longer time) and divorce (losing much of its negative meaning) also undermined marriage.
The definition of symbol is
a. an object in our social world that has personal meaning
b. an object in our natural world that has personal meaning
c. an object in our natural world that has social meaning
d. something to which we attach meaning and use to communicate with one another
something to which we attach meaning and use to communicate with one another
The central idea of symbolic interactionism is that
a. human interaction contains hidden meanings that researchers must discover
b. few people understand the secret nature of human interaction
c. symbols – things to which we attach meaning – are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another
d. there is a natural meaning to objects, called symbols, that sociologists study
symbols – things to which we attach meaning – are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another
This statement, “Without symbols we would have no aunts or uncles, employers or teachers – or even brothers or sisters,” sounds like an exaggeration. To illustrate what this statement means, and how symbols underlie our orientation and actions, an example of a couple who was going to get married was used. This example contrasts these terms
a. natural parents vs. adopted parents
b. boyfriend and girlfriend vs. brother and sister
c. natural children vs. adopted children
d. teacher and student vs. boss and employee
boyfriend and girlfriend vs. brother and sister
A hundred years ago or so, divorce was considered
a. immoral
b. the best way out of a bad marriage
c. a course of action open only for women
d. illegal during the first five years of marriage
immoral
In 1933, sociologist William Ogburn, reported that young people were placing more emphasis on the personality of their potential mates. Then, in 1945, sociologists Ernest Burgess and Harvey Locke noted that couples were expecting more affection, understanding, and compatibility in marriage. The implication of these changes for divorce is that
a. divorce decreased at that time because more affection and understanding led to husbands and wives being more compatible
b. marriage was more easily broken as it became more of an agreement based on attraction and feelings, rather than a commitment based on duty and obligation
c. divorce became more common as understanding and compatibility decreased
d. divorce declined as people’s personalities improved
marriage was more easily broken as it became more of an agreement based on attraction and feelings, rather than a commitment based on duty and obligation
It may sound strange, but to have love as the main reason for marrying
a. makes the Hollywood depictions of romance more accurate than most people think
b. makes marriage about the same as a college education
c. weakens marriage
d. contributes to the emotional instability of teenagers
weakens marriage
Symbolic interactionists stress that symbols give meaning to what people do and provide direction to their lives. Changing symbols also underlie the high U.S. divorce rates. Changing ideas of parenthood contributed to the high divorce rate by
a. requiring that parents give allowances to their children
b. increasing the responsibility of parents, placing more stress on couples
c. making it almost impossible to give birth at home
d. instituting a tracking system through government agencies
increasing the responsibility of parents, placing more stress on couples
Symbolic interactionists stress that changing ideas of love contributed to the high divorce rate by
a. replacing duty and obligation as the basis for marriage with feelings, which are changeable
b. making people confront uncomfortable “self-messages”
c. bringing unrealistic images to teenagers, who seek self-fulfillment in another person rather than in personal growth and accomplishments
d. placing a greater emphasis on material wealth
replacing duty and obligation as the basis for marriage with feelings, which are changeable
Symbolic interactionists stress that changing ideas of divorce contributed to the high divorce rate by
a. removing the need to be married in order to survive in the new economic order
b. placing greater responsibility on parents for taking care of their children
c. encouraging couples to look for love “in all the wrong places”
d. removing many of the negative meanings that had been attached to divorce
removing many of the negative meanings that had been attached to divorce
The bottom line regarding symbolic interactionism and our high divorce rate is that
a. changes in one part of society affect other parts of society
b. none of us is safe in marriage
c. marriage, like the rest of society, is held together by symbols, which change and led to an increase in divorce
d. the customs of one generation are not the customs of another generation
marriage, like the rest of society, is held together by symbols, which change and led to an increase in divorce
Unit 2.6
Theoretical Perspectives: Functional Analysis
Functional Analysis
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of various parts. Each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism
Summarize functional analysis.
The central idea of functional analysis is that society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together. Like an organism, if society is to function smoothly, its parts must work together in harmony. To understand society, we need to analyze both structure (how the parts of society fit together to make a whole) and function (what each part does and how it contributes to society). To do this, we can analyze functions and dysfunctions (manifest and latent).
Use functional analysis to explain why the U.S. divorce rate increased.
As industrialization moved production away from the family, it weakened ties that had held husbands and wives together.
The central idea of functional analysis is
a. if the people who are in control of society functioned better, society would be better
b. we need to work to improve the functioning of society
c. criminals should be rehabilitated so they do not interfere with the smooth functioning of society
d. society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together
society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together
Emile Durkheim said that when the parts of society fulfill their functions, society is in a “normal” state. If they do not fulfill their functions, society
a. needs a change
b. can last after its parts stop functioning, but for only about 20 years or so
c. is in an “abnormal” or “pathological” state
d. becomes like a wild animal that looks for victims
is in an “abnormal” or “pathological” state
To understand society, functionalists say that we need to look at both structure and function. By structure, they are referring to
a. how well children learn to become adults who contribute to the well-being of society
b. how the parts of a society fit together to make the whole
c. how the government looks out for the welfare of its citizens
d. what each part of society does
how the parts of a society fit together to make the whole
To understand society, functionalists say that we need to look at both structure and function. By function, they mean
a. what each part does and how it contributes to society
b. what the government does to help the poor
c. that we need to learn ways to make our groups more functional, so that they contribute to the well-being of society
d. how the parts of a society fit together to make the whole
what each part does and how it contributes to society
Suppose that the Federal Reserve Board raises interest rates in order to reduce inflation, and it works. The reduction of inflation is
a. a manifest function
b. a latent function
c. a secret means to help the power elite and Wall Street financiers
d. an example of how the government is trying to take over the affairs of citizens
a manifest function
Suppose that the Federal Reserve Board raises interest rates in order to reduce inflation. It works, and inflation drops. With the higher interest rates, more of the elderly receive higher income from their investments, and more of them leave welfare. The reduced welfare among the elderly is
a. a manifest function
b. an interference by the government in the normal working of a free market economy
c. a latent function
d. a latent dysfunction
a latent function
Suppose that the Federal Reserve Board raises interest rates in order to reduce inflation. It works, and inflation drops. But because of the higher interest rates, fewer people can buy houses, and the housing market collapses. The collapse of the housing market is
a. about what you can expect when the federal Reserve Board puts its hands on things
b. part of an economic system gone bad
c. a manifest function
d. a latent dysfunction
a latent dysfunction
To apply functional analysis to explain the high U.S. divorce rate, functionalists would stress that industrialization and urbanization
a. were developments whose roots go far back in history
b. weakened the traditional functions of the family
c. were connected to the rise of the power of central governments, which connect many parts of society into a whole
d. are new to the social scene, have brought many negative consequences, and are changing as society develops more effective means of regulating itself
weakened the traditional functions of the family
To apply functional analysis to explain the high U.S. divorce rate, functionalists would stress that
a. the traditional functions that held couples together have been weakened
b. marriage isn’t what it used to be
c. the love symbol weakened marriage by placing emphasis on self-fulfillment
d. this was just temporary and marriage is now getting stronger
the traditional functions that held couples together have been weakened
The bottom line regarding functionalism and our high divorce rate is that
a. changes in one part of society affect other parts of society
b. none of us is safe in marriage
c. when the family loses functions, it becomes more fragile, increasing the divorce rate
d. the customs of one generation are not the customs of another generation
when the family loses functions, it becomes more fragile, increasing the divorce rate
Unit 2.7
Theoretical Perspectives: Conflict Theory
Conflict Theory
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources
Summarize conflict theory.
Society is composed of groups that are competing with one another for scarce resources. This competition, or class conflict, between the bourgeoisie (capitalists) and the proletariat (workers) is the key to human history. Today’s conflict theorists extend the analysis of conflict to other groups in society.
Use conflict theory to explain why the U.S. divorce rate is high.
Marriage has been a place of conflict for women and men for millennia, with men traditionally dominant and women dependent on men. The high divorce rate indicates that women are exercising their growing independence, less willing to put up with the dominance of men.
The essence of conflict theory is that
a. the symbols given to us by society lie at the roots of our thoughts and relationships
b. none of us is really free
c. the groups of society work together in a harmonious whole
d. society is composed of groups that are competing with one another for scarce resources
society is composed of groups that are competing with one another for scarce resources
As developed by Karl Marx, in classic conflict theory the key to human history is
a. ever changing
b. class conflict
c. education
d. the ideas that the proletariat develop as they struggle for justice
class conflict
The classic focus of conflict theory is on class conflict. This is conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The proletariat are the
a. students who study sociology and social change
b. top leaders – military, political, and business
c. workers who are exploited by the bourgeoisie
d. students who advocate for social change
workers who are exploited by the bourgeoisie
The classic focus of conflict theory is on class conflict. This is conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie are the
a. those who are demanding social change
b. the small group of capitalists who own the means to produce wealth
c. the downtrodden of society, the poor, the unemployed, and the homeless
d. the women who not only have entered traditional male occupations, but also have become leaders in these fields
the small group of capitalists who own the means to produce wealth
Today’s sociologists extend conflict theory beyond the relationship of capitalists and workers. They examine how
a. opposing interests run throughout society – whether that is a small group, an organization, a community, or the entire society
b. people from the bottom layers of society who make it to the top make peace with the conditions they previously viewed as negative
c. society changes, bringing one group after another into different positions
d. societies are born, go through a vigorous youthful period, reach a plateau of power and energy (called the stage of maturity), and then slowly decline.
opposing interests run throughout society – whether that is a small group, an organization, a community, or the entire society
Today’s sociologists extend conflict theory beyond the relationship of capitalists and workers. They examine how
a. the educational system is divided into layers of prominence
b. college degrees are the ticket to high-paying jobs
c. rapid communications through satellite connections are changing schools and the workplace
d. there is a constant struggle throughout society to determine who has authority or influence and how far that dominance goes
there is a constant struggle throughout society to determine who has authority or influence and how far that dominance goes
The primary focus of feminists who use conflict theory is the
a. changes in the educational system and its impact on the work world of women
b. changes in political leadership and the division of political privileges
c. historical, contemporary, and global inequalities of men and women – and how the traditional dominance by men can be overcome to bring about equality of the sexes
d. way that men have given up leadership roles
historical, contemporary, and global inequalities of men and women – and how the traditional dominance by men can be overcome to bring about equality of the sexes
To explain why the U.S. divorce rate is high, conflict theorists focus on
a. the changing role of religion in today’s society
b. how men’s and women’s relationships have changed
c. how women have secured voting rights in 1920 and used their new power to challenge the traditional role of men in the family
d. international relations, especially changes in global stratification
how men’s and women’s relationships have changed
From the conflict perspective, our country’s high divorce rate
a. indicates that women are making headway in their historical struggle with men
b. is a sign that society is deteriorating
c. indicate that the social institutions need to work together to strengthen families
d. is just a temporary situation, and in about 10 years, the divorce rate should decline
indicates that women are making headway in their historical struggle with men
Unit 2.8
Putting the Perspectives Together: Macro and Micro
Macro Level
large scale patterns of society
Micro Level
small scale patterns of society
Nonverbal Interaction
communication without words – through gestures, use of space, silence, and so on
Social Interaction
what people do when they are in each others presence
State why we need all three theoretical perspectives.
Because each theoretical perspective focuses of specific features of social life, each produces a distinct interpretation. Combing the contributions of each yields a more comprehensive picture of social life.
Summarize macro and micro approaches in society and associate these levels with the theoretical perspective.
The macro approach focuses on larger-scale aspects of society, such as unemployment. The micro approach focuses on small-scale social patterns, on social interaction. Symbolic interactionists are likely to follow the micro approach. Functionalists and conflict theorists are likely to focus on macro aspects of society.
None of the three theoretical perspectives is the right one. Rather, we need to use all three because
a. we cannot take sides in sociology
b. to use just one of the perspectives would offend the other theorists
c. there are just too many to choose from
d. each theory, focuses of specific features of social life, produces a distinct interpretation; by combing the contributions of each, we gain a more comprehensive picture of social life
each theory, focuses of specific features of social life, produces a distinct interpretation; by combing the contributions of each, we gain a more comprehensive picture of social life
The term macro level refers to
a. how societies change
b. the economic conflict between power elites that threatens world peace
c. large-scale social patterns, such as unemployment, economic conflict, and international relations
d. how business-people seek a “niche” in the market, where they can establish sales for their products
large-scale social patterns, such as unemployment, economic conflict, and international relations
The term micro level refers to
a. changes in voting patterns in national elections
b. small-scale social patterns, such as what people say to one another
c. how inventions have changed entire societies
d. changes in the unemployment rate
small-scale social patterns, such as what people say to one another
The tern nonverbal interaction refer to
a. the ways people use space, the looks on their faces as they talk, and how they gesture
b. actions of the government that are not put into words
c. the unstated goals of classroom teachers
d. two people kissing (yes, but one of the other answers is more complete)
the ways people use space, the looks on their faces as they talk, and how they gesture
A sociologist is doing research on the struggle between social classes. The sociologist is probably a
a. graduate student
b. symbolic interactionist
c. functionalist
d. conflict theorist
conflict theorist
A sociologist is doing research on how people make bids at auctions, how they signal their intentions. She is also studying the ways that auctioneers pick up and respond to these signals. This sociologist is probably a
a. graduate student
b. symbolic interactionist
c. functionalist
d. conflict theorist
symbolic interactionist
A sociologist is doing research on how changes in the economy are leading to different types of work and how this is having an impact on contributions to charitable organizations. This sociologist is probably a
a. graduate student
b. symbolic interactionist
c. functionalist
d. conflict theorist
functionalist
Which of the following are the first three steps in the research model?
a. collect data, formulate a hypothesis, share the results
b. review the literature, define the problem, collect data
c. define the problem, review the literature, formulate a hypothesis
d. analyze the data, define the problem, formulate a hypothesis
define the problem, review the literature, formulate a hypothesis
Which of the following research topics requires a macro level analysis?
a. the face-to-face interaction of coffee shop workers and customers
b. how inner-city teachers understand and experience their occupation
c. divorce rates across the United States
d. how breast cancer survivors manage their body image
divorce rates across the United States
In the following hypothesis what is the dependent variable?
Protestants are more likely than Catholics to commit suicide.
a. Catholics
b. likelihood of committing suicide
c. religion
d. Protestants
likelihood of committing suicide
In the following hypothesis what is the independent variable?
Men are more likely than women to commit a violent crime.
a. women and violent crime are both independent variables
b. gender
c. men
d. violent crime
gender
What is the median of the following number set: [1, 7, 12, 13, 23]?
a. 7
b. 23
c. 12.5
d. 12
12
Which of the following research topics is best understood through symbolic interaction?
a. the meaning of marriage
b. the gender gap in pay
c. the crime rates in urban communities
d. the functions of poverty
the meaning of marriage
Symbolic interaction is a _____ analysis.
a. target sample
b. macro level
c. micro level
d. multivariate
micro level
What is the mode of the following number set: [77, 81, 81, 90, 93, 127, 130]?
a. 90
b. 81
c. 130
d. 92.5
81
Dana has been spending all her time this week creating tables with data from her survey project. What stage of the research model is Dana in?
a. formulate a hypothesis
b. review the literature
c. collect data
d. analyze the results
analyze the results
For his senior thesis, Jeffery is interested in college students’ attitudes about the death penalty. Which survey method is best suited to answer Jeffery’s research question?
a. survey research
b. participant observation
c. an experiment
d. analysis of documents
survey research
Which theoretical perspective would best explain the historical dominance of men over women?
a. structural functionalism
b. the social reproduction of inequality
c. conflict theory
d. symbolic interactionism
conflict theory
For her senior thesis, Karen wants to research the patterns of how women are depicted in high-fashion magazines. Which research method is best suited to explore her research topic?
a. participant observation
b. survey research
c. an experiment
d. analysis of documents
analysis of documents
What type of question is the following?
“Can you tell me a little bit about a time you were dissatisfied with the service you received at a restaurant?”
a. functionalist
b. objective
c. closed-ended
d. open-ended
open-ended
The textbook describes _____ different research methods used by sociologists.
a. six
b. thirteen
c. four
d. eight
six
Researchers us a _____ to represent the population being studied.
a. census
b. database
c. sample
d. research method
sample
How many steps are there in the research model?
a. eight
b. three
c. six
d. fifteen
eight
Sociologists use which two types of questions in their research?
a. negative and positive
b. open- and closed-ended
c. theoretical and empirical
d. subjective and objective
open- and closed-ended
Researchers use _____ to help explain what they observe happening in the world.
a. theory
b. open-ended questions
c. hypotheses
d. random samples
theory
There are _____ core theoretical perspectives used by sociologists.
a. seven
b. three
c. two
d. five
three
The mean, median, and mode are three ways of measuring _____.
a. an independent variable
b. a standard deviation
c. an average
d. a sample
an average
One recent sociological study claims that divorce rates in the United States are so high because modern family ties are weak. What theoretical perspective were the authors most likely relying on to draw this conclusion?
a. conflict theory
b. structural functionalism
c. symbolic interaction
d. feminism
structural functionalism
A research team is performing a social experiment. What should they be sure to include in their research design to ensure a successful experiment?
a. open-ended questions
b. a codebook
c. closed-ended questions
d. a control group
a control group
Sarah is interested in finding out what the most common GPA for high school seniors is. What measure should she use to appropriately answer her question?
a. calculate the median GPA for high school seniors
b. calculate the mode of GPA for high school seniors
c. calculate the standard deviation of GPS for high school seniors
d. calculate the mean GPA for high school seniors
calculate the mode of GPA for high school seniors
Zoe loves to garden and wants to investigate the role of community gardens in low-income compared to middle-class neighborhoods. What would likely be the best research method to investigate her research topic?
a. an experiment
b. survey research
c. participant observation
d. analysis of documents
participant observation
Stacey has decided she wants to research child maltreatment. What is the first thing she should do in the development of her research project?
a. review the literature
b. write a survey
c. ask her friends what they think about the topic
d. formulate a hypothesis
review the literature
Micro level analysis would be most useful for which of the following research topics?
a. the flaws of policies intended to reduce poverty
b. the patterns of interactions between doctors and patients
c. the variation in divorce rates across the United States
d. environmental consequences of global warming
the patterns of interactions between doctors and patients
What is the median income of the following households: [$23,500, $37,000, $42,500, $58,000, $125,000]?
a. $42,500
b. $51,000
c. $57,200
d. $37,000
$42,500
Which measure should be used to calculate the average age of senior citizens living in Texas?
a. median
b. mode
c. mean
d. standard error
mean
Nathan is a new professor trying to publish his work from his dissertation. Every time Nathan submits his journal article for review to an editorial board, it is rejected. The reviewers of his article send comments back to him about his work not providing any new, unique contributions to his field of research. What stage of Nathan’s research process was likely weak to warrant these comments?
a. his data collection
b. his reporting of data
c. his data analysis
d. his review of the literature
his review of the literature
In her research results, Maria finds that husbands sometimes resent their wives when the husband makes less money than his wife. What theoretical perspectives are best suited to help Maria explain her results?
a. conflict theory, social evolution
b. social learning theory, symbolic interactionism
c. conflict theory, symbolic interactionaism
d. symbolic interactionism, world systems theory
conflict theory, symbolic interactionaism
To measure years of education obtained by a respondent, a survey question asks, “What year did you graduate from high school?” In research terms, what is wrong with this measure?
a. The measure shouldn’t be open-ended
b. The measure is not theoretical
c. The measure is not valid
d. The measure shouldn’t be closed-ended
the measure is not valid
Stan and Emily are a research team who want to interview cohabiting couples about how they share household chores and expenses. They decide that Stan will interview the men and that Emily will interview the women in the couples. Why did Stan and Emily likely decide on this research method?
a. If Emily interviewed the men the study would be invalid and unreliable
b. This is the most convenient way to complete the interviews
c. Stan and Emily are aware that gender can affect research
d. Stan’s schedule is more in line with the male participants’ schedules
Stan and Emily are aware that gender can affect research
Michelle has been studying religiosity of Americans through surveys she distributes every five years. Her studies consistently reveal that Catholics report being just as religious as Protestants. Because her measures are so good, many other researchers have adopted them in their own research. In research terms, how are these types of measure described?
a. reliable
b. plagiarized
c. hypothetical
d. independent
reliable
Recent research concludes that children are deviant because the social ties of the family have weakened in recent decades. What theoretical perspective is most likely being used in this research?
a. feminist theory
b. symbolic interactionism
c. structural functionalism
d. conflict theory
structural functionalism
The best way to draw a representative sample for research is to use _____.
a. a convenience sampling method
b. a secondary data source
c. an open-ended sampling method
d. a random sampling method
a random sampling method
Karl Marx is often considered a founding father of _____.
a. structural functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interactionism
d. feminism
conflict theory
Clinical trials are a common social research method.
a. True
b. False
False
Gender can affect research.
a. True
b. False
True
_____ is a well-known functional theorist.
a. Robert Merton
b. Auguste Comte
c. Harriett Martineau
d. Karl Marx
Robert Merton
Research that produces consistent or dependable results is called _____.
a. ethical
b. valid
c. reliable
d. open-ended
reliable
Common sense is an adequate way to understand social life.
a. True
b. False
False
A literature review is a step in the research process that occurs before data collection.
a. True
b. False
True
A conflict theorist would claim that divorce is the result of the changing ideas we have in our society about marriage, divorce, parenthood, and love.
a. True
b. False
True
_____ questions provide choices for respondent answers, whereas _____ questions allow the respondent to answer questions in their own words.
a. open-ended, valid
b. valid, reliable
c. research, hypothetical
d. closed-ended, open-ended
closed-ended, open-ended
_____ refers to a feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying.
a. rapport
b. relatability
c. relational research
d. reciprocity
rapport
According to _____, changing ideas about marriage, divorce, parenthood, and love put pressure on married couples and may contribute to the divorce rate.
a. psychoanalysts
b. symbolic interactionalists
c. conflict theorists
d. functionalists
conflict theorists
Donald is interested in studying divorce for his senior thesis project. What is the first step Donald needs to take to start his study?
a. define the problem
b. formulate a hypothesis
c. choose a data collection method
d. review the literature
define the problem
Janet has just completed her data analysis and written a report of her research results. What should she do now?
a. end this project
b. test additional hypothesis with her data
c. find a way to publish and share her results with others
d. start a new project
find a way to publish and share her results with others
_____ is a conflict theorist; ______ is a functionalist.
a. C. Wright Mills, Karl Marx
b. Robert Merton, Emile Durkheim
c. Karl Marx, Robert Merton
d. Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx
Karl Marx, Robert Merton
Ryan is writing questions to ask respondents in the data collection phase of his study; therefore, Ryan must be using secondary analysis.
a. True
b. False
False
While conducting interviews Brenda starts to notice that all of her respondents are giving her one- or two-word answers to almost all of her questions. What might be going wrong?
a. Brenda must be interviewing her respondents at a bad time
b. Brenda’s interview questions are all asked in an open-ended format
c. Brenda’s interview questions are all asked in a closed-ended format
d. Brenda’s respondents are all very shy
Brenda’s interview questions are all asked in a closed-ended format
The term micro-level refers to large-scale social patterns, such as unemployment, economic conflict, and international relations.
a. True
b. False
False
Household income can be an independent and a dependent variable in social research.
a. True
b. False
True
Research rarely challenges our commonsense assumptions about the world.
a. True
b. False
False
Dr. Day is providing students in his research class feedback on the hypotheses they plan to test for their research projects. One student turns in the following hypothesis – H: Why don’t men help around the house? Dr. Day tells the student the hypothesis has to be revised. Why?
a. there are grammatical errors in the hypothesis
b. the hypothesis cannot be linked to a theoretical perspective
c. the variables in this hypothesis are not sociological
d. the student’s work is not a hypothesis
the hypothesis cannot be linked to a theoretical perspective
We all “do theory” in our everyday lives.
a. True
b. False
True
_____ is a theoretical perspective that explains how people in society create meaning.
a. conflict theory
b. symbolic interactionism
c. structural functionalism
d. social learning theory
symbolic interactionism
According to Merton, dysfunctions are the harmful consequences of peoples’ actions.
a. True
b. False
True
If a sample accurately represents the same group in the target population, it is _____.
a. representative
b. functional
c. non-random
d. hypothetical
functional
If Jennifer’s research is about a social institution she has a _____ unit of analysis, but if she focuses on meanings in peoples’ lives she has a _____ unit of analysis.
a. hypothetical, valid
b. micro, macro
c. symbolic, reliable
d. macro, micro
micro, macro
In her research, Judy is trying to calculate the average household income of residents in a particular community. What is the most appropriate average for her to calculate?
a. mode and mean
b. median
c. mean
d. mode
mean
_____ generally focus on micro-level analysis, whereas _____ and _____ generally focus on macro-level analysis,
a. conflict theorists, functionalists, feminists
b. world systems theorists, symbolic interactionists, conflict theorists
c. symbolic interactionists, conflict theorists, functionalists
d. functionalists, conflict theorists, symbolic interactionists
functionalists, conflict theorists, symbolic interactionists
Arthur includes the following question in his research survey: What is your opinion of the death penalty? This is a good example of a neutral question.
a. True
b. False
True
Researchers conducting _____ run the risk of getting too involved in the lives of those they are studying.
a. survey research
b. secondary analysis
c. document analysis
d. participant observation
participant observation
Why do we need social research?
a. because everyone needs to know how to do research in order to succeed in the world
b. because research can help us prove that our assumptions about the world are usually correct
c. because research that supports our personal beliefs can change the world
d. because our common sense is based on limited, untested experiences and can be wrong
because research that supports our personal beliefs can change the world
To collect data about how someone feels about a given topic it would be best to _____.
a. ask mostly open-ended questions
b. talk to people in groups
c. ask as few questions as possible
d. test more than one research hypothesis
ask mostly open-ended questions
A researcher studying which of the following would use a macro-level analysis?
a. how much parents smile at their children during meals
b. how juvenile delinquency has been affected by an increase in single-parent families in society
c. how baseball players take up space in the batter’s box
d. what kinds of nonverbal cues are used by primary school teachers to redirect their students when the children get off task
how juvenile delinquency has been affected by an increase in single-parent families in society
Which of the following is the most accurate statement about micro-level analysis?
a. It focuses on large-scale changes in society over time
b. It ignores subtleties
c. It is attentive to detail
d. It neglects verbal communication
It is attentive to detail
In discussing the application of conflict theory to divorce, the author does NOT specifically refer to changes in women’s _____.
a. childbearing activities
b. educational achievements
c. workforce achievements
d. relationships
childbearing activities
Conflict theorists argue that divorce has risen in the U.S. because _____.
a. industrial jobs have disappeared
b. women now have more power
c. men now have more power
d. institutionalization has occurred
women now have more power
What would feminists likely say about women and work?
a. women should be the only breadwinners
b. women are best at jobs that involve money management
c. women still suffer from discrimination in the workplace
d. times were better for women when men were the breadwinners and women worked only in the home
women still suffer from discrimination in the workplace
Feminist conflict theorists focus on inequality between _____.
a. men and women
b. men and boys
c. women and girls
d. feminism and Marxism
men and women
According to Marx, workers were _____ capitalists.
a. subject to the desires of
b. even wealthier than
c. dominant over
d. the same as
subject to the desires of
Which of the following aspects is noticeable in the preindustrial farm family described in the text?
a. gender segregation
b. the wife appears to be preparing to divorce her husband
c. the husband appears to be preparing to divorce his wife
d. a global outlook
gender segregation
Of the following, Robert Merton was most concerned with _____.
a. how society functions as an organism
b. how well the parts of society work in concert
c. conflict in society
d. one-on-one interactions in society
how well the parts of society work in concert
In examining divorce, symbolic interactionists focus on the ways in which _____ all have different meanings than they once did
a. marriage, divorce, parenthood, and love
b. childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age
c. affection, friendship, romantic love, and sex
d. love, marriage, separation, and death
marriage, divorce, parenthood, and love
What is one of the main reasons Henslin includes the story of his interaction with a homeless woman?
a. he wants to point out how to deal with making mistakes during research projects
b. he wants to caution people against doing research on homelessness
c. he wants to ensure males don’t interview females
d. he wants to encourage researchers to work in lab settings only
he wants to point out how to deal with making mistakes during research projects
In which of the following situations is it appropriate to use unobtrusive measures?
a. in a city park
b. in a business meeting
c. at a party at the country club
d. when a doctor is meeting with a patient in his or her office
in a city park
The variable that alters another variable is the _____ variable.
a. independent
b. dependent
c. spurious
d. control
independent
Which would not be used in document analysis?
a. an individual’s correspondence
b. live phone interviews
c. telephone call records
d. diaries
live phone interviews
Secondary analysis makes use of data that has, by definition, _____.
a. established cause and effect
b. established correlation
c. already been gathered
d. used maps
already been gathered
A multiple-choice question such as this one is an example of a(n) _____ question.
a. open-ended
b. closed-ended
c. confounding
d. uncontrolled
closed-ended
If you want to be able to say that what you’ve found in your survey applies to your entire target population, you will have to make sure you have surveyed a _____ sample of that population.
a. representative
b. convenience
c. biased
d. nonrandom
representative
_____ research consists of many respondents being asked a particular set of questions.
a. Survey
b. Unobtrusive
c. Document analysis
d. Secondary
Survey
_____ is the last stage in the research model provided in the text.
a. Defining the problem
b. Reviewing the literature
c. Sharing the results
d. Choosing a research method
Sharing the results
_____ is the earliest stage in the research model provided in the text.
a. Selecting a topic
b. Formulating a hypothesis
c. Choosing a research method
d. Reviewing the literature
Selecting a topic