Chapter 2 Questions

Which of the following statements relative to the theory and practice of management is TRUE?

a) Academic theories have little application in business because they are not grounded in reality
b) The value of theory is that it provides a systematic framework for management activities
c) Theory is, by definition, very abstract and quite difficult to understand
d) Managers never develop their own theories of how to run an organization
e) Management theories tend to be mutually exclusive

b) The value of theory is that it provides a systematic framework for management activities
Which of the following historical books did not influence management?

a) The Second World War
b) Iliad
c) The Prince
d) Republic
e) War and Peace

e) War and Peace
Charles Babbage emphasized the application of mathematics to production problems. Thus, his work was a forerunner of…

a) administrative management
b) the contingency theory
c) the behavioral school of management thought
d) operations management
e) the systems theory

d) operations management

concerned with helping the organization more efficiently produce its products or services

______ management focuses on the work of individuals.

a) Administrative
b) Behavioral
c) Human Relations
d) Scientific
e) Contingency

d) Scientific

concerned with improving the performance of individual workers

At Toyota, each task that operating employees and machines perform is carefully studied to promote maximum productivity. In some cases, tasks are studied using time and motion studies to standardize work methods. What management approach is Toyota using?

a) human relations management
b) scientific management
c) management science
d) contingency theory
e) administrative management

b) scientific management

concerned with improving the performance of individual workers

One of the most common complaints that buyers have about Internet retail is the inability of many retailers to fill orders correctly and in a timely fashion. Which of the following management approaches can retailers use to improve per-order efficiency?

a) the classical perspective
b) scientific management
c) management science
d) contingency theory
e) administrative management

b) scientific management

concerned with improving the performance of individual workers

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Who among the following was NOT associated with scientific management?

a) Mary Parker Follett
b) Lillian Gilbreth
c) Henry Gantt
d) Frederick Taylor
e) Harrington Emerson

a) Mary Parker Follett

early advocate of the behavioral approach to management

The use of a Gantt chart to schedule workers’ duties, breaks, and lunches at a day-care center is an application of one of the principles associated with…

a) the classical perspective
b) scientific management
d) management science
d) the contingency theory
e) administrative management

b) scientific management

concerned with improving the performance of individual workers

Which of the following is NOT a technique Frederick Taylor used to enhance worker productivity?

a) study and time each element of the job
b) design the most efficient way of doing each part of a job
c) place both workers and managers on salary to reduce friction
d) supervise workers and mangers to make sure they follow procedures and rest only when told to
e) allow managers to plan the work to be done

c) place both workers and managers on salary to reduce friction
The plant manager for an electronics manufacturer is often heard saying that the way to motivate workers is to provide them with attractive wage and benefit packages. What school of thought does his view reflect?

a) quantitative
b) behavioral
c) classical
d) contingency
e) systems

c) classical

– improving individual worker performance
– focusing on the total organization

Chester Barnard, former president of New Jersey Bell Telephone Company, made notable contributions to management regarding…

a) individual job efficiency
b) legitimate authority
c) management processes
d) dynamic organizations
e) individual rights and liberties

b) legitimate authority

‘The Functions of the Executive’
the book proposes a major theory about the acceptance of authority; subordinates weight the legitimacy of a supervisor’s directives and then decide whether to accept them

Bill and his friends wanted to start their own house painting business. It was decided that to differentiate their services from others, they would break down the various jobs associated with painting; landscape protection, equipment preparation, trim, main body, and clean-up, and each would specialize. After being in business for a couple of months, they experiment with ladder placement and spray pressure to determine the most efficient painting process. Which of the following management theorists would be most helpful to these entrepreneurs?

a) Gantt
b) Taylor
c) Gilbreth
d) Emerson
e) Weber

c) Gilbreth

increased bricklaying output by 200%

______ focuses on the management of the entire firm as opposed to the jobs of individual workers.

a) Management Science
b) The Contingency Theory
c) Administrative Management
d) The Bureaucratic Perspective
e) Scientific Management

c) Administrative Management
All of the following were primary contributors to administrative management EXCEPT…

a) Weber
b) Fayol
c) Urwick
d) Munsterberg
e) Barnard

d) Munsterberg

contributor to behavioral management perspective

Contributions of the classical perspective include all of the following EXCEPT…

a) laid the foundation for later developments in management theory
b) appropriate for dynamic organizations
c) identified important management processes and functions
d) identified important management skills
e) focused attention on management as a valid subject of scientific inquiry

b) appropriate for dynamic organizations
Limitations of the classical perspective include all of the following EXCEPT…

a) more appropriate for stable organizations
b) more appropriate for simple organizations
c) more appropriate for dynamic organizations
d) often prescribed universal procedures that are not appropriate in some settings
e) even though some writers were concerned with the human element, many viewed employees as tools rather than resources

c) more appropriate for dynamic organizations
Contemporary organization theory has its roots in…

a) Weber’s work on bureaucracy
b) Fayol’s 14 principles of management
c) Barnard’s work on acceptance of authority
d) Taylor’s work on job design
e) Gilbreth’s work in time and motion studies

a) Weber’s work on bureaucracy
Barnard’s theory on the acceptance of managerial authority states that…

a) supervisors have inherent authority
b) supervisors have charismatic authority
c) if subordinates view a supervisor’s directive as appropriate to organizational goals, they will accept his or her authority
d) so long as subordinates are able to comply with a supervisor’s directives, they will accept his or her authority
e) supervisors have no authority unless subordinates are willing to grant it to them

e) supervisors have no authority unless subordinates are willing to grant it to them
Government run healthcare in other countries requires end of life counseling. The question “Do you feel like a burden to your family?” suggests to some that ending treatment will ease the burden on the family and State. It could be argued that the government sees itself as more important than the individual. This example deals with one of the drawbacks to the use of the ______ perspective of management.

a) human resource
b) behavioral
c) classical
d) contingency
e) industrial psychology

c) classical

prescribed universal procures that are not appropriate in some settings

Industrial psychology is the practice of applying…

a) psychology to the masses
b) statistical measures to psychological output
c) efficiency measures to psychological output
d) psychology to worker motivation and selection
e) industrial advancements to medical research

d) psychology to worker motivation and selection

the practice of applying psychological concepts to industrial settings; employee selection and motivation

Which of the following statements characterizes the thinking that emerged from the Hawthorne Studies?

a) If jobs are properly designed and proper incentives provided, predictable results will follow
b) Workers will perform their jobs as they are told to and will maximize their output so as to increase their pay
c) Concern for the worker will lead to greater worker satisfaction, which will then lead to increased output
d) Workers generally dislike work and need to be closely supervised to ensure adequate productivity
e) People are motivated primarily by money

c) Concern for the worker will lead to greater worker satisfaction, which will then lead to increased output
All of the following were primary contributors to the behavioral management perspective EXCEPT…

a) Munsterberg
b) Maslow
c) Mayo
d) Fayol
e) McGregor

d) Fayol

– Fayol was a contributor to the administrative management perspective

Nipurna is a high school guidance counselor. A student observed that Nipurna acted like a Theory Y manager. That would mean that Nipurna…

a) believes that people do not like to work
b) is constantly directing a student that wants to avoid taking responsibility
c) will often threaten her students to get them to work toward school goals
d) believes that people naturally like work
e) all of these choices

d) believes that people naturally like work

Theory Y – a positive view of workers; it represents the assumptions that ‘human relations’ advocates make

Dr. Weaver is one of two emergency room physicians in charge of the staff. A patient observed that Dr. Weaver acted like a Theory X manager. That would mean that Dr. Weaver believes…

a) that people prefer to be directed
b) in the contingency approach to management
c) in the importance of TQM
d) that people are committed to goals
e) that people naturally seek out work

a) that people prefer to be directed

Theory X – a pessimistic and negative view of workers; people prefer to be directed to avoid responsibility

Topics in the field of organizational behavior include all EXCEPT which of the following?

a) job satisfaction
b) stress
c) leadership
d) organizational politics
e) operations

e) operations
Contributions of the behavioral management perspective include all of the following EXCEPT…

a) challenged the view that employees are tools
b) furthered the belief that employees are valuable resources
c) provided important insights into motivation and group dynamics
d) focused managerial attention on motivation and group dynamic processes
e) challenged the complexity of individual behavior and made predictions of that behavior

e) challenged the complexity of individual behavior and made predictions of that behavior
When a manufacturing plant uses mathematical models to plan production schedules and to schedule equipment maintenance, it is drawing on…

a) scientific management
b) administrative management
c) management science
d) TQM
e) the contingency approach

c) management science

focuses specifically on the development of mathematical models

The Army uses aircraft simulators to train helicopter pilots, which decreases the fuel consumption, helicopter maintenance, storage requirement, and air traffic control congestion. This is an example of…

a) scientific management
b) administrative management
c) operations management
d) behavior perspective
e) classical perspective

c) operations management- helping the organization more efficiently produce its products or services
Operations management is concerned with…

a) the application of various processes and systems used by an organization
b) systems created to store and provide information for managerial decision making
c) the scientific analysis of the work elements of a job
d) the development of mathematical and statistical tools and techniques for managerial decision making
e) none of these choices

a) the application of various processes and systems used by an organization
______ management techniques do not account for individual behaviors and attitudes.

a) Scientific
b) Administrative
c) Systems
d) Human Relations
e) Quantitative

e) Quantitative
Which school of management though would be most useful to a package delivery company that wanted to determine the most efficient routes for each of its drivers to follow?

a) organizational behavior
b) scientific management
c) administrative management
d) management science
e) systems management

d) management science

focuses specifically on the development of mathematical models

What are the two branches of quantitative management?

a) Scientific and Administrative Management
b) Theory X and Theory Y
c) Contingency and Systems Theory
d) Human Relations and Organizational Behavior
e) Management Science and Operations Management

e) Management Science and Operations Management
The Blue Rooster is a bakery. It sells 12 flavors of bread, made fresh daily. Some doughs require time to rise. If they are handled too soon or too late the texture and flavor is ruined. The importance of scheduling indicates that The Blue Rooster should adopt the ______ perspective.

a) organizational behavior
b) scientific management
c) administrative management
d) management science
e) systems management

d) management science

focuses specifically on the development of mathematical models

Which two managerial functions utilize quantitative management the most?

a) controlling and organizing
b) planning and organizing
c) organizing and leading
d) controlling and planning
e) leading and controlling

d) controlling and planning
Limitations of the quantitative management perspective include all of the following EXCEPT…

a) difficult to apply
b) cannot fully explain or predict the behavior of people in organizations
c) mathematical sophistication may come at the expense of other important skills
d) models may require unrealistic assumptions
e) models may require unfounded assumptions

a) difficult to apply
Which of the following statements describes the inherent strength in the quantitative management theory?

a) The quantitative management theory provides numerous decision-making tools and techniques.
b) The quantitative management theory has realistic assumptions that permit close approximations of organizational processes.
c) The quantitative management theory has allowed accurate modeling of individual behaviors and attitudes.
d) The quantitative management theory enhances development of other management skills.
e) None of these choices

a) The quantitative management theory provides numerous decision-making tools and techniques
_____ help managers integrate and enlarge their understanding of the 3 principal schools of management thought.

a) Administrative management and scientific management
b) Systems theory and contingency theory
c) The human relations movement and organizational behavior
d) Management science and operations management
e) Scientific management and bureaucratic management

b) Systems theory and contingency theory
Which of the following is NOT an output?

a) profit
b) service
c) product
d) complaint form
e) information

d) complaint form
According to the system perspective of management, which of the following is NOT an example of a transformation process for an organization?

a) employee behavior
b) control systems
c) administrative systems
d) technology
e) operating systems

a) employee behavior
Haldeman Ford is a car dealership in East Windsor NJ. It employs 35 people. Using the systems theory, it would be classified as…

a) an entropic system
b) a subsystem
c) either a system or subsystem depending on the frame of reference
d) either an open or a closed system depending on the frame of reference
e) a closed system

c) either a system or subsystem depending on the frame of reference
Students applying to business schools look at the quality of the education and the alumni network which can help with career placement. The students are looking for a(n)…

a) open system
b) closed system
c) subsystem
d) synergy
e) entropy

d) synergy

subsystems are more successful working together in a cooperative and coordinated fashion than working alone; the whole system is more productive and efficient than the sum of its parts

The _____ stresses the importance of environmental influences on the organization.

a) quantitative management theory
b) open system concept
c) behavioral management theory
d) human relations movement
e) concept of synergy

b) open system concept

an organization that interacts with its external environment

The appropriate management behavior that depends on the unique situation is a _____ perspective.

a) classical
b) universal
c) behavioral
d) quantitative
e) contingency

e) contingency

each organization is unique; managerial behavior depends on the current situation

Harley-Davidson puts its brand on everything from motorcycles to toys and clothes. It is benefiting from…

a) equifinality
b) synergy
c) entropy
d) a closed system
e) subsystem of interdependence

b) synergy

two or more subsystems working together to produce more than the total of what they might produce working alone

The broader the solutions, the greater the creativity and possibility for innovation. This is a benefit of which perspective?

a) Classical
b) Universal
c) Quantitative
d) Contingency
e) Behavioral

d) Contingency

suggests that appropriate managerial behavior in a given situation depends on, or is contingent on, a wide variety of elements

Information is readily available on the Internet. The number of people subscribing to print media is shrinking. This decline is an example of…

a) closed system inversion
b) open system thinking
c) subsystem failure
d) entropy

d) entropy

a normal process leading to system decline

Bill Bingaman was overheard telling one of his friends, “You always think the way to solve a problem is to develop a math model that is supposed to represent the situation. It just doesn’t work that way. You have to use your head and try different approaches under different circumstances.” What management theory is Bingaman advocating?

a) Systems Theory
b) Organizational Behavior
c) Administrative Management
d) Quantitative Management
e) Contingency Theory

e) Contingency Theory

suggests that appropriate managerial behavior in a given situation depends on, or is contingent on, a wide variety of elements

Staff Sergeant Tyra Bradford is a platoon sergeant. She uses whatever style of management seems to fit the situation. Her management style fits which theory of management?

a) Bureaucratic Management
b) TQM
c) The Contingency Approach
d) Theory X and Y
e) Qualitative Management

c) The Contingency Approach
To obtain greater flexibility and to respond more quickly to the environment, organizations are adopting…

a) technology-free structures
b) flat structures
c) the traditional bureaucratic approach to management
d) a TQM philosophy
e) tall structures

b) flat structures

few or no levels of management between management and staff level employees

Why is quality an important management issue?

a) quality can be used as a basis for competition
b) enhancing quality lowers costs
c) improving quality tends to increase productivity
d) making higher-quality products generally results in less waste
e) all of the above

e) all of the above