Chapter 2 Medical Terminology

abdominal cavity
major organs of digestion
proximal
situated nearest the midline or beginning of the body
distal
situated farthest from the midline
medial
direction toward or nearest the midline
lateral
direction toward the side of the body
ventral cavity
located along the front of the body
We will write a custom essay sample on
Any topic specifically for you
For only $13.90/page
Order Now
thoracic cavity
chest cavity, surrounds the heart and lungs
diaphragm
separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
congenital disorder
disorder you are born with
atresia
congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening
hospitalist
focuses on the general medical care of hospitalized patients
vertical plane
up and down plane
superior
uppermost, above or towards the head
inferior
lowermost, below, or towards the feet
frontal plane
vertical plane that divides the body anterior/posterior
dorsal
back
cephalic
toward the head
anterior
front
anatomy
the study of the structure of the body
caudal
towards the lower part of the body
posterior
situated in the back/back part of organ/towards back
physiology
the study of the functions of the structures of the body
anatomic position
the posture in which the body is standing upright
midsagittal plane
divides the body into equal right and left sides
homeostasis
constant control – states of wellness
cell
basic structure of the body
cytology
study of the cell
cytologist
a specialist study of cells
adult stem cells
body or somatic stem cells
embryonic stem cells
comes from the cord blood found in the umbilical cord
gene
physical and functional unit of heredity
genetics
study of genes
genetcist
specialist in genes
dominant gene
inherited from either parent
recessive genes
inherited from both or one parents
genome
complete set of genetic information
chromosomes
genetic structures located within a cell
somatic cell
any cell in the body except the sex cells – 46 chromosomes arranged into 23 pairs XX-women XY-men
sex chromosomes
is the only cell that does not contain 46 chromosomes
down syndrome
genetic facial appearance
cystic fibrosis
a life threatening genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus
Huntington’s disease
genetic passed from parent to child
histology
study of the structure, composition and function of tissues
histologist
specialist study of tissues
epithelium
forms skin
endothelium
the specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs
adipose tissue
known as fat
muscle tissue
contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax
aplasia
without something or absent of something
hypoplasia
deficient formation not completely developed
dysplasia
abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs
anaplasia
a change in the structure of cells
glands
cells that produce secretions
exocrine glands
secretes chemicals into ducts
adenomalacia
abnormal softening of glands
adensclerosis
abnormal hardening of glands
pathology
study of disease
pathologist
specialist that studies died people
body organ
somewhat independent part of the body that performs a specific function
communicable disease
any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or by indirect contact with contaminated objects
epidemiologist
specialist study of outbreaks of diseases
nosocomial infection
a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting
connective tissue
support and connect organs
adenocarcinoma
cancerous malignant tumor in the glandular tissue (glands)
-malacia
abnormal softening
aden/o
gland
-sclerosis
abnormal hardening
pathogen
disease producing microoganism such as a virus
atresia
congenital absence of a normal body opening
interstitial
between, but not within, the parts of a tissue
neuroplasty
the surgical repair of a nerve
cyanosis
bluish discoloration of the skin by a lack of oxygen
pyoderma
any acute, inflammatory, pus-forming bacterial skin infection
retroperitoneal
located behind the peritoneum