Chapter 2. Ethics and Public Speaking

During his Internet research, Charles found three articles that eloquently made the points he wanted to make in his speech about gay marriage and the Bible. Charles used portions of each article to make an effective, persuasive appeal that he presented as his own in a classroom speech. Should Charles be concerned about using the work of others without citing the source?

A. no, because Charles is referring to the Bible
B. no, because Internet sources often borrow from one another
C. yes, because plagiarism affects his credibility and reliability as a speaker and person
D. no, because most information from the Internet is not subject to copyright
E. yes, because Charles was discussing a controversial topic
F. no, because using unattributed information from others in a classroom speech is not illegal

C. yes, because plagiarism affects his credibility and reliability as a speaker and person
Examples of incremental plagiarism include

A. passing off an entire speech as your own when it has been taken from another speaker
B. using the exact words of others as your own
C. rephrasing a difficult passage and giving credit to the source
D. rephrasing the words of others without crediting the sources

B. using the exact words of others as your own
D. rephrasing the words of others without crediting the sources
Speech goals and values may differ legitimately from person to person. What is the public speaker’s responsibility in assessing a speech topic for a given situation?

A. completely avoid any topic that someone might find unethical
B. ask a friend to decide if your goals are ethical
C. ask as many questions about the topic and audience as possible

C. ask as many questions about the topic and audience as possible
Which of the following are the best ways to avoid global plagiarism?

A. using and citing more than one source in your speech
B. do not wait until the last minute to research and prepare your speech
C. using information only from internet sources

A. using and citing more than one source in your speech
B. do not wait until the last minute to research and prepare your speech
True or false: speakers do NOT have to cite Internet sources since so many websites copy material from other sites.
false
The practice of name-calling in public speaking is

A. sometimes appropriate
B. protected as free speech under the Bill of Rights
C. generally unethical
D. harmful to society

B. protected as free speech under the Bill of Rights
C. generally unethical
D. harmful to society
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Felicia Robinson struggles to run an honest election campaign. If her campaign consultants advise her to leak allegations about her opponent that are not yet substantiated, should Felicia be concerned about this action?
A. no, because the public has a right to know
B. yes, because the allegations against her opponent may be proved false
C. yes, because tentative findings are the same as firm results
D. no, because chances are that the media will leak the allegations anyway
B. yes, because the allegations against her opponent may be proved false
To avoid incremental plagiarism in your speech, you should

A. identify the source of any unoriginal words or ideas
B. do your research on the internet
C. use quotations rather than paraphrases
D. not use more than two sources in your speech

A. identify the source of any unoriginal words or ideas
Listening ethically means

A. keeping an open mind to controversial ideas
B. judging the speaker based on the title and description of the speech
C. focusing your attention on the speaker
D. using good manners during the speech

A. keeping an open mind to controversial ideas
C. focusing your attention on the speaker
D. using good manners during the speech
Global plagiarism is defined as

A. speech material from multiple Internet sources without giving credit to the source
B. speech material entirely from one source and passing it off as your own work
C. quotations without citation

B. speech material entirely from one source and passing it off as your own work
In U.S. history, restricting free speech

A. is not allowed under the First Amendment, even if the speech contains threats to kill the President
B. was used to suppress labor organizations
C. was used to keep women from voting
D. was used to stop civil rights leaders
E. is recommended by the National Communication Association in order to protect society

B. was used to suppress labor organizations
C. was used to keep women from voting
D. was used to stop civil rights leaders
For 2 years, Janice has volunteered for the local Red Cross. When preparing a speech for her class, Janice found a “speakers bank” of speech manuscripts at the Red Cross website. Janice chose a speech from the bank; she was familiar with all the data in that speech, and the document cited the sources of all data. In class, Janice presented the speech as her own. Is Janice guilty of plagiarism?

A. no, because the speech was well written and it cited its sources
B. yes, of the global type
C. yes, of the incremental type

B. yes, of the global type
Which of the following is NOT a guideline for ethical speaking?

A. make sure your goals are ethically sound
B. dress well for the speech
C. avoid name-calling
D. be fully prepared for each speech
E. be honest

B. dress well for the speech
Ethics is the branch of philosophy that includes which of the following? Select all that apply.

A. honesty and dishonesty
B. issues of right and wrong
C. actions that are moral or immoral

A. honesty and dishonesty
B. issues of right and wrong
C. actions that are moral or immoral
Speakers are expected to behave ethically

A. only if their topic could change people’s behavior
B. only if they are personally impacted by the topic
C. in every speech situation except a political campaign speech
D. in every speech
E. only if the law requires it

D. in every speech
Which of the following are examples of plagiarism?

A. citing information from other sources
B. using wording from other sources but giving proper credit for that language
C. presenting ideas from other sources as your own
D. using wording from other sources as your own

C. presenting ideas from other sources as your own
D. using wording from other sources as your own
Manipulating statistics in making a speech is

A. a subtle form of dishonesty that is unethical
B. rarely a problem because people cannot check the source
C. ethical if it helps you achieve a worthy goal

A. a subtle form of dishonesty that is unethical
A listener has a responsibility to encourage the speaker by

A. maintaining consistent eye contact with the speaker
B. sitting in an attentive position
C. showing support with appropriate facial expressions
D. agreeing with everything the speaker says

A. maintaining consistent eye contact with the speaker
B. sitting in an attentive position
C. showing support with appropriate facial expressions
Which of the following are guidelines for ethical speaking?

A. you should be fully prepared for the speech
B. your speech may contain abusive language because of the right to free speech
C. spend adequate time in preparation steps such as creating visual aids and rehearsing
D. your goals should be worthy

A. you should be fully prepared for the speech
C. spend adequate time in preparation steps such as creating visual aids and rehearsing
D. your goals should be worthy
Ethical decisions are an important part of public speaking because

A. there are no guidelines for ethical actions while speaking
B. public speaking is a form of power and it can be abused
C. in public speaking the ends justify the means

B. public speaking is a form of power and it can be abused
Patchwork plagiarism occurs when a speaker

A. paraphrases material without citation
B. ties together words and ideas from several sources without citation
C. uses material from one source without citation

B. ties together words and ideas from several sources without citation
Being thoroughly informed about the subject matter is an ethical consideration for all speakers. Thoroughly researching a topic means

A. researching all sides of an issue
B. making sure that the facts are stated accurately
C. acknowledging opposing viewpoints
D. being politically correct

A. researching all sides of an issue
B. making sure that the facts are stated accurately
C. acknowledging opposing viewpoints
If you use the views or ideas of others,

A. you should verbally acknowledge only the sources of the views or ideas taken from journal articles
B. you should verbally acknowledge only the sources of the views or ideas that you quote directly
C. you should verbally acknowledge all sources whether you quote or paraphrase them

C. you should verbally acknowledge all sources whether you quote or paraphrase them
Although all speakers have the right to be heard, which of the following is NOT included in the First Amendment’s protection of free speech?

A. speeches that advocate the right to have an abortion
B. threats against the life of the president of the United States
C. speeches that incite an audience to illegal actions
D. speeches that contain falsehoods that destroy a person’s reputation

B. threats against the life of the president of the United States
C. speeches that incite an audience to illegal actions
D. speeches that contain falsehoods that destroy a person’s reputation
Tashiana was in a hurry to complete her speech for a public speaking contest. During her research on world hunger she found some wonderfully descriptive language. She used those descriptions, which helped her make her points vividly and movingly in the speech. She did not give attribution for these words but did cite the World Health Organization for the facts and statistics that she included in the speech. Tashiana won the contest, but was her speech ethical?

A. no, because she failed to attribute the sources of all her ideas and wording
B. yes, because she did cite the World Health Organization as the source of her facts and statistics
C. yes, because sometimes failing to cite paraphrased material and quotations is accidental

A. no, because she failed to attribute the sources of all her ideas and wording