Chapter 19 Notes

Foundations of Today’s Social Media
Web 2.0 and User generated content
Web 2.0
a new way to utilize the World Wide Web. It refers to functionalities that make possible today’s high degree of interactivity among users. Content can be modified continuously by all users in a participatory fashion.
User Generated Content
the various forms of online media content that are publicly available and created by end users. It covers all the ways people can use social media. It satisfies three basic criteria:
1. It is published either on a publicly accessible website or on a social networking site.
2. It shows a significant degree of creative effort, so it should include editing or comments.
3. It is consumer-generated by an individual outside of a professional organization, without a commercial market in mind.
Blog
a contraction of “web log” – is a web page that serves as a publicly accessible personal journal and online forum for an individual or organization.
Wiki
a website whose content is created and edited by the ongoing collaboration of end users to generate and improve new product ideas. It shows the end result as a single entry.
Social Media
online media where users submit comments, photos, and videos – often accompanied by a feedback process to identify “popular” topics. It represents a unique blending of technology and social interaction to create personal value for users. It involves a genuine online conversation among people about a subject of mutual interest, one built on their personal thoughts and experiences.
Social Network
a single social media site, like Facebook or Youtube.
How does one classify social media?
Based on two factors:
– Media Richness
– Self-Disclosure
Media Richness
this involves the degree of acoustic, visual, and personal contact between two communication partners. Face-to-face communications being higher in media richness than telephone or e-mail communications. The higher the media richness and quality of presentation, the greater the social influence that communication partners have on each other’s behavior.
Self-Disclosure
Individuals want to make a positive impression to achieve a favorable image with others. This favorable image is affected by the degree of self-disclosure about a person’s thoughts, feelings, likes, and dislikes. Greater self-disclosure is likely to increase one’s influence on those reached.
Social Media vs. Traditional Media
– Both have the ability to reach both large and niche audiences.
– Messages and ads in traditional media are expensive to produce and have restricted access by individuals. It is typically owned privately or by the gov. Messages on social media networks are generally accessible everywhere to those with Smartphones or computers and can be produced cheaply.
– Producing traditional media typically requires specialized skills and training often involves teams of people. Sending messages on social media require limited skills, so practically anyone can post a message.
– Traditional media can involve days or even months of continuing effort to deliver the communication, and time lags can be extensive. Individuals using social media can post virtually instantaneous content.
– Traditional media, once created, cannot be altered. Social media can be altered almost instantaneously by comments or editing.
– Individuals and organizations can establish themselves as an “expert” in their given field, thereby becoming an “influencer” in that field. But with social media, a sender often simply begins to participate in the conversation, hoping that the quality of the message will establish credibility with the receivers, thereby enhancing the sender’s influence.
What are the 4 most important social networks?
1. Facebook 2. Twitter 3. LinkedIn 4. YouTube
Facebook
a website where users create a personal profile, add other users as friends, and exchange comments, photos, videos, and “likes” with them. Users today can keep friends and family updated on what a user is thinking, doing, and feeling. Users may chat with friends and create and join common-interest groups. Pages were later created as a method for brand managers to generate awareness for their product, service, or brand within Facebook. It allows brand managers to promote their business. This is a magnet for feedback.
What are the two main reasons that Facebook users unlike pages?
The page posts too frequently 1) on trivial topics or 2) about controversial ones – like religion and politics.
What are suggestions to engage fans on Facebook?
– Make it familiar with a twist – focus content strategy on imagery and messaging that is familiar to fans.
– Leverage your assets. Ex. Dreamworks Animation introduced a Shrek Facebook page featuring favorite characters from the Shrek series.
– Keep it fresh. Ex. Redbox posts its latest film releases on its page.
– Let users get engaged and guide content. Ex. Taco Bell polls users to see which menu item they’d like featuring in the following week’s menu profile photo.
Twitter
a website that enables users to send and receive tweets, messages up to 140 characters long. This social network is based on the principle of “followers.”
Six categories of tweets:
1. Pointless babble (41%)
2. Conversational (38%)
3. Pass-along value (9%)
4. Self-promotion (6%)
5. Spam (3%)
6. News (3%)
How do Brand managers use Twitter?
They can:
1) generate brand buzz by developing an official Twitter profile, recruiting followers, and showing photos of their products.
2) follow the Twitter profiles that mention their product or brand and monitor what is being said.
3) respond to user criticisms to develop happier customers
4) tweet on topics that provide information of value to their customers.
LinkedIn
Main purpose is professional networking and job searching. It is a business-oriented website that lets users post their professional profiles to connect to a network of businesspeople. The people in this network are called “connections.”
How do marketing managers use LinkedIn?
Marketing managers can promote their brand in subtle ways. This is done mainly for business-to-business (B2B) image building, using profiles of company employees and networking with industry-related groups. Managers can also use LinkedIn for business development to find sales leads and vendors and to organize focus groups. Managers can demonstrate the organization’s expertise and create and moderate discussion groups.
YouTube
a video-sharing website in which users can upload, view, and comment on videos. It uses streaming video technology to display user generated video content developed by amateurs. Unregistered users can watch the videos.
How do marketing managers use YouTube?
Offers great opportunity for a brand manager to produce and show a video that explains the benefits of a complex product. Since it is owned by Google, it incorporates a search engine so users interested in a specific topic can find it easily. In terms of cost advantages, while a brand manager must pay the cost of creating a video, launching a new channel on this network is free. Companies can also connect with potential customers or others that mention their product by engaging them in conversations about their videos.
What are the 3 guidelines on marketing a brand using YouTube Videos?
– Create a channel rich in key words to improve the odds of the video showing up in user searches
– Target viewers by using YouTube’s insights and analytics research to reveal the number of views, where they originate within YouTube, and what key words are driving user visits.
– Remember that money matters. YouTube’s user channel is free to all, but its brand channels could require $200,000/quarter media spending on YouTube.
True or False: Social media generally uses a one way communication.
False! Social media deliberately seeks to ensure that the message does NOT end with an individual receiver. The goal is to reach “active receivers,” those who will become “influentials” and be “delighted” with the brand advertised. These will become evangelists, who will send messages to their online friends and then back to the advertiser about the joys of using the brand.
How does a brand manager select a social media network to advertise on?
They assess 1) the number of daily visitors to the website, 2) the characteristics of these visitors, and 3) the focus of the website.
What performance measures are linked to Inputs and Costs?
1) cost per thousand, which is the number of times an ad is displayed to a users
2) cost per click, which gives the rate the advertiser pays each time a visitor clicks on the ad and then jumps to the webpage of the advertiser’s choice.
What performance measures are linked to outputs or revenues?
1) the number of unique monthly users viewing the website at a given time
2) page views – the number of times a specific web page is loaded.
3) visitors – the total number of users viewing a particular web page during a specified time period.
What are suggested actions for a brand manager facing a crisis situation?
– Communicate directly with “key influencers,” emphasizing the company’s concern about the issue.
– Respond swiftly with honesty, transparency, empathy, facts, a willingness to listen, and an openness to change.
– Communicate the solution through Twitter, Facebook, blogs, YouTube, and other relevant social media.
– Listen for and address feedback to facilitate brand recovery.
True or False: It is not critical to have an emergency social media plan for the brand in place before an actual crisis erupts.
False!
Smart System
a computer-based network that triggers actions by sensing changes in the real or digital world
Apps
Social media will increasingly migrate into smart systems. Smartphones and their ____ are speeding up this convergence. They are small, downloadable software programs that run on Smartphones and tablet devices.
In 2010, there was a surge in 3 kinds of Smarphone apps related to social media. What were they?
1) price-comparison searches
2) loyalty programs
3) location-based promotions.
“Viral”
In terms of global marketing, an ad using social media can go “_______,” meaning that thousands or millions of people can view, like, and comment on it – if effective, entertaining, or informative.