Chapter 17 Terms

Cyrus W. Field
He laid a transatlantic telegraph cable to Europe in 1866.
Alexander Graham Bell
He developed the first commercially used telephone
Christopher L. Sholes
He invented the typewriter in 1868.
James Ritty
He invented the cash register in 1879
William S. Burrough
He invented the adding machine or calculator in 1891.
Charles F. Brush
One of the pioneers of electrical lighting. He invented the arc lamp for street illumination
Thomas A. Edison
One of the pioneers of electrical lighting. He invented the incandescent lamp (or light bulb), which could be used for both street and home lighting. He and others designed improved generators and built large power plants to furnish electricity to whole cities.
Henry Bessemer
He simultaneously discovered a process by which iron could be transformed into steel at the same time as the American William Kelly. This process was named after him.
William Kelly
He simultaneously discovered a process by which iron could be transformed into steel at the same time as the Englishman Henry Bessemer.
Abram C. Hewitt
New Jersey iron-master who introduced another method of making steel-the open-hearth process.
George Bissell
The Pennsylvania businessman who showed that oil could be burned in lamps and that it could also yield such products as paraffin, naphtha, and lubricating oil. He then raised money to begin drilling.
Edwin L. Drake
One of Bissell’s employees who established the first oil well near Titusville, Pennsylvania.
Spindletop oil Field
Explorers discovered this oil field in Texas in 1901. It is one of the greatest oil deposits in the world, and Standard Oil quickly established facilities there.
Standard Oil of Ohio
The dominant firm in the oil industry that quickly established facilities at the Spindletop Oil Field. It was formed in 1870 by John Rockefeller.
Guglielmo Marconi
Italian inventor who took the first steps toward the development of radio in the 1890’s
Wright Brothers
They launched the first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in 1903.
Charles and Frank Duryea
They built the first gasoline driven motor vehicle in America in 1903/
Henry Ford
In 1906 he produced the first of the famous cars that would soon bear his name.
“Taylorism”
Many industrialists were turning to this new principle of “scientific management”. Those principles were named after their leading theoretician, Frederick Winslow Taylor.
Frederick Winslow Taylor
His principles were called “Taylorism”. He argued that scientific management was a way to manage human labor to make it compatible with the demands of the machine age. He urged employers to reorganize the production process by subdividing tasks.
Menlo Park
Thomas Edison’s famous industrial laboratory here sparked many corporations to establish laboratories of their own.
Model T
Henry Ford’s car which from his application of the assembly line cut the price from $950 to $290.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Railroad tycoon
James J. Hill
Railroad tycoon
Collis P. Huntington
Railroad tycoon
“limited liability”
One risked only the amount of their investment in a corporation; they were not liable for any debts the corporation might accumulate beyond that.
Andrew Carnegie
The central figure of the steel industry. He was a Scottish immigrant who had worked his way up from modest beginnings and in 1873 opened his own steelworks in Pittsburgh. Soon he dominated the industry. He cut costs and prices by striking deals with the railroads and then bought out rivals who could not compete with him. Ultimately, he controlled the process of his steel from mine to market. He financed his undertakings not only out of his own profits but out of the sale of stock.
Henry Clay Frick
Andrew Carnegie’s business partner. He and Carnegie bought up coal mines and leased part of the Mesabi iron range in Minnesota, operated a fleet of ore ships on the Great Lakes, and acquired railroads.
J. Pierpont Morgan
Banker who purchased Andrew Carnegie’s business for $450 million. He merged the Carnegie interests with others to create the giant United States Steel Corporation- a $1.4 billion enterprise that controlled almost two-thirds of the nation’s steel production.
Gustavus Swift
He developed a relatively small Chicago meatpacking company into a great national corporation, in part because of profits he earned selling to the military during the Civil War.
Isaac Singer
He patented a sewing machine in 1851 and created I.M. Singer and Company, one of the first modern manufacturing corporations.
“horizontal integration”
The combining of a number of firms engaged in the same enterprise int o a single corporation. For example, the consolidation of many different railroad lines into one company.
“vertical integration”
The taking over of all the different businesses on which a company relied for its primary function. Carnegie Steel, which came to control not only steel mills, but mines, railroads, and other enterprises, was an example.
John D. Rockefeller
The most celebrated corporate empire of the late nineteenth century who combined horizontal and vertical integration. He formed the Standard Oil Company of Ohio in 1870. He saw consolidation as a way to cope with what he believed was the greatest curse of the modern economy: “cutthroat competition”
pool arrangement
informal agreements among various companies to stabilize rates and divide markets (arrangements that in later years would be known as cartels). However, this was not very effective.
trust
Pioneered by John Rockefeller and perfected by J.P. Morgan. In this system, stockholders of businesses would transfer control of stock and voting rights of stock were turned over to this. People that owned this could then control other businesses without owning them.
holding company
A central corporate body that would buy up the stock of various members of a trust and establish direct formal ownership of the corporations in the trust.
“self-made man”
19th C ideal that celebrated men who rose to wealth or social prominence from humble origins through self-discipline, hard work, and temperate habits.
E. H. Harriman
A great railroad tycoon who had begun as a broker’s office boy.
“the public be damned”
Vanderbilt’s son, William, said this.
“Erie War”
Cornelius Vanderbilt did battle against Jay Gould and Jim Fisk for control of the Erie Railroad, both sides of the dispute offered lavish bribes to members of the NY State legislature to support measures favorable to their cause.
Social Darwinism
Popular social theory of the late nineteenth century. This is the application to human society of Charles Darwin’s laws of evolution and natural selection among species. Just so only the fittest survived in the process of evolution, so in human society only the fittest individuals survived and flourished in the marketplace.
Herbert Spencer
English philosopher who was the first and most important proponent of Social Darwinism. He argued that society benefited from the elimination of the unfit and the survival of the strong and talented. His books were popular in America in the 1870’s and 1880’s.
William Graham Sumner
He promoted similar ideas to Spencer in lectures, articles and a famous 1906 book, Folkways. He did not agree with everything Spencer wrote, but he did share Spencer’s belief that individuals must have absolute freedom to struggle, to compete, to succeed, or to fail
The Gospel of Wealth
Written by Andrew Carnegie in 1901. He wrote that the wealthy should consider all revenues in excess of their own needs as “trust funds” to be used for the good of the community; the person of wealth, he said, was “the mere trustee and agent for his poorer brethren.”
Russell H. Conwell
A Baptist minister who became the prime spokesman for the notion that great wealth is available to all. He delivered his famous “Acres of Diamonds” more than 6,000 times between 1880-1900. He told a series of stories, which he claimed were true, of individuals who had found opportunities for extraordinary wealth in their own backyards. He claimed that most of the millionaires in the country had begun on the lowest rung of the economic ladder and had worked their way to success.
“Acres of Diamonds”
Famous speech given by Russell Conwell over 6,000 times between 1880-1900. He told a series of stories, which he claimed were true, of individuals who had found opportunities for extraordinary wealth in their own backyards. (One such story involved a modest farmer who discovered a vast diamond mine in his own fields in the course of working his land.”
Horatio Alger
The most famous promoter of the success story. He was originally a minister in a small town of Massachusetts but was driven from his pulpit as a result of a sexual scandal. He moved to New York, where he wrote his celebrated novels – more than 100 in all, which together sold more than 20 million copies. The titles varied: Andy Grant’s Pluck, Ragged Dick, Tom t he Bootblack, Sink or Swim. But the story and message were invariably the same: A poor boy from a small town went to the big city to seek his fortune. By work, perseverance, and luck, he became rich.
Lester Frank Ward
Sociologist and Darwinist who rejected the application of Darwinian laws to human society. In Dynamic Sociology and other books, he argued that civilization was not governed by natural selection but by human intelligence, which was capable of shaping society as it wished. He thought that an active government enegaged in positive planning was society’s best hope.
Dynamic Sociology
Written by Lester Frank Ward, it said that civilization was not governed by natural selection but by human intelligence, which was capable of shaping society as it wished
Daniel De Leon
An immigrant from the West Indies who founded and led the Socialist Labor Party. He attracted a modest following in industrial cities, but the party failed to become a major political force. His theoretical and dogmatic approach appealed to intellectuals more than to workers.
Henry George
Californian journalist who published Progress and Poverty a forthright attack on the uneven distribution of wealth in the U.S. He said labor was the only true source of capitol. He proposed the “single tax” which was a tax that would bring in so much money that no other taxes would be necessary and the government would have plenty of funds to establish new schools… it was never adopted. He ran for mayor against Abram S. Hewitt and lost.
Progress and Poverty
Written by Henry George in 1879, it became one of the best-selling nonfiction works in American publishing history.
“single tax”
George proposed that this would replace all other taxes, which would return the increment to the people. He argued that the tax would destroy monopolies, distribute wealth more equally, and eliminate poverty.
Edward Bellamy
Wrote Looking Backwards, critical of social Darwinism. It sold over a million copies in its first few years. It described a utopian society where all economic activity was carefully planned. He believed all citizens should share everything equally.
Looking Backward
Written by Edward Bellamy, it described the experiences of a young Bostonian who went into a hypnotic sleep in 1887 and awoke in the year 2000 to find a new social order where want, politics, and vice were unknown.
Mrs. Bradley Martin
She spent $360,000 on a ball and created such furor that she and her husband fled to England to escape public abuse.
Labor Contract Law
This law permitted industrial employers to pay for the passage of foreign workers in advance and deduct the amount later from their wages. It was passed during the Civil War due to the shortage of workers. It was repealed almost 20 years after the war had ended.
William H. Sylvis
Founder of the National Labor Union
National Labor Union
Founded by William H. Sylvis, it was a polyglot association claiming 640,000 members, that included a variety of reform groups having little direct relationship with labor. Like many unions, it excluded women. After the Panic of 1873 it disintegrated and disappeared.
“Molly Maguires”
A militant labor organization in the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania. They operated within the Ancient Order of Hibernians and often used terrorist tactics. They attempted to intimidate coal operators through violence and occasionally murder, and they added to the growing perception that labor activism was motivated by dangerous radicals.
Ancient Order of Hibernians
An Irish fraternal society from which the Molly Maguires operated.
Uriah S. Stephens
Leader of the Order of the Knights of Labor
Order of the Knights of Labor
This was the first major effort to create a genuinely national labor organization. It was led by Uriah S. Stephens and membership was open to all who “toiled,” a definition that included all workers and most business and professional people. The only excluded groups were lawyers, bankers, liquor dealers and professional gamblers.
Leonara Barry
An Irish immigrant who had worked in a New York hosiery factory, ran the Woman’s Bureau of the Knights of Labor. Under her effective leadership, the Knights enlisted 50,000 women members (both black and white) and created over a hundred all-female locals.
Terrence V. Powderly
Under his leadership the Order of the Knights of Labor moved into the open and entered a spectacular period of expansion.
American Federation of Labor
The most important and enduring labor group in the country. It was an association of essentially autonomous craft unions and represented mainly skilled workers. It was generally hostile to organizing unskilled workers.
Samuel Gompers
The powerful leader of the AFL who talked about the importance of women remaining in the home. He accepted the basic premises of capitalism; his goal was to simply secure for the workers he represented a greater share of capitalism’s material rewards. He rejected the idea of fundamental economic reform; he opposed the creation of a worker’s party; he was generally hostile to any government efforts to protect labor or improve working conditions, convinced that what the government could give it could also take away.
McCormick Harvester Company
Site of a general strike in Chicago which led to the Haymarket square massacre.
Haymarket Square Massacre
Strikers from the McCormick Harvester Company met here and when police ordered the crowd to disperse someone threw a bomb that killed seven officers and injured sixty-seven others. The police fired into the crowd and killed four more people.
Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers
It was affiliated with the AFL and was the most powerful trade union in the country. Its members were skilled workers, in great demand by employers and thus able to exercise significant power in the workplace. This union had a foothold in only one of Carnegie’s three major factories – Homstead. This union was destroyed after the Homestead strike.
Pinkertons
well-known strike-breakers. Their mere presence was often enough to incite workers to violence.
Pullman Palace Car Company
Manufactured sleeping and parlor cars for railroads, which it built and repaired at a plant near Chicago. Within this company was a town in which workers could live. When the company cut wages, but didn’t reduce rent the workers went on strike.
Eugene V. Debs
He led the militant American Railway Union. The strikers in the Pullman strike persuaded him to support them by refusing to handle Pullman cars and equipment.
John Peter Altgeld
The governor of Illinois who refused to call out the militia to protect the employers in the Pullman strike.
Richard Olney
Attorney General who was a former railroad lawyer and a bitter foe of unions. He sent 2,000 troops to Chicago to stop the Pullman strike under the pretenses that the strike interfered with delivery of mail.
WLTU
it was created in response to the exclusion of women in unions.