Chapter 17 Section 1 Study Guide

biodiversity
What is an important branch of biology that investigates the variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems?
hundreds, millions
The number of identifies species has grown from __________ to __________, and scientists are certain that many more remain unidentified.
Terry Erwin
Which ecologist has been working since the 1980s to catalog insect species in plots of tropical rain forest?
He had scientists count and classify insects that fell from treetops fogged with insecticide. There were 1,000 species of beetles in just 19 of the same kind of trees in a limited area of a rainforest.
What data did Erwin use to estimate the total possible number of insect species worldwide?
30 million
According to Erwin, how many species of insects might there be on Earth?
A species could have a number of traits that are similar to different organisms. For example, the pangolin has scales like lizards or crocodiles, but they also us sticky tongues to eat ants like several mammals.
Why might classification for grouping organisms be difficult, and why might many different methods be proposed?
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taxonomy
What is the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms called?
taxon
What is any particular group within a taxonomic system called?
Aristotle classified organisms into either plants or animals.
Which Greek philosopher classified organisms into only two taxa 2,400 years ago, and what were those two taxas?
Whether they lived on land, in water, or in air.
How did Aristotle group animals?
The differences in their stems
How did Aristotle group plants?
inadequate
As naturalists described more organisms, they realized Aristotle’s classification system was ____________.
Common names vary from place to place and many don’t accurately define a species. For example, the name “jellyfish” is misleading because it is not actually a fish.
Why did early naturalists find common names not useful to identify organisms?
They were difficult to remember and did not describe relationships among organisms.
Why did long descriptions in Latin not work for naming species?
Carolus Linnaeus
Which Swedish naturalist devised a system of grouping organisms into hierarchical categories according to their form and structure?
The original system had seven levels of categories that represent a level of grouping from larger, more general categories to smaller, more specific categories.
Describe the Linnaean System
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum/Division, class, order, family, and genus, and species.
What are the modern categories/levels used in the classification of hierarchy of organisms?
kingdom
What is the largest category that distinguishes between animals and plants?
domains
What are categories above the kingdom level?
phyla
What are subsets below the kingdom level?
classes
What does each phylum consist of?
orders
What does each class contain?
family and genus
What are two of the smaller groupings?
species
What is the smallest grouping which contains only a single kind of organism?
the genus name followed by the species identifier
What are the two parts of a species name/scientific name?
binomial nomenclature
What is the system of two-part names known as?
italics, capitalized, Latin, countries, language
The species name is written in _________ with the genus name __________. Species names generally come from _______ roots and are intended to be the same for all _________ and in every ___________.
subspecies, identifier
Biologists refer to variations of a species that live in different geographic areas as ____________. Their name follows the species __________.