Chapter 16, Section 1: US History

Jacob Riis
He wrote the book “How the Other Half Lives” which was about how the poor people (mostly immigrants) suffered from terrible living conditions in their tenement homes.
Progressivism
A reform movement that addressed many of the social problems that industrialism created.
Muckrakers
People that exposed or “raked” the filth and corruption of a city and/or its government.
Ida Tarbell
She was a muckraker that wrote about Standard Oil’s corruption, and she also exposed John D. Rockefeller’s monopoly.
Lincoln Steffens
He exposed the corruption of the city government in his book: “The Shame of the Cities” written in 1904.
Lillian Wald
She was a reformer that worked to expand public health services to the poor.
Tenement Act of 1901
This act required that all tenement landlords provided lighting in public hallways and to provide one toilet for every two families.
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
This was an organization founded by Ida Wells-Barnett, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Jane Addams. The organization protested segregation in federal government, protested films with messages of segregation, and they worked for the betterment of African Americans.
ADL (Anti-Defamation League)
This organization was started by Sigmund Livingston in 1913 to end antisemitism, or hostility towards Jews.
Florence Kelley
He/she persuaded Illinois to prohibit child labor, and shortened the work hours for women. He/she also helped found the National Child Labor Committee, which persuaded state legislatures to ban child labor, but not all states reinforced this.
Lochner vs. New York
The Supreme Court sided with the business owners on this court case.
Mauller vs. Oregon
The Supreme Court sided with the workers in this court case. Led to shorter work day for women in laundromats (to 10 hours)
Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
This was a fire that started in a shirtwaist factory that led to the death of many people working in the building. The working conditions were so poor, people did not have proper exits to escape the fire, leaving them to die. This incident helped the progressives by making their causes look good.
ILGWU
The International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union, which organized unskilled workers as members, and they had strikes that were used to earn more pay and a shorter work day.
AFL
The American Federation of Labor, which organized skilled workers as members only. They led strikes and whatnot, they were similar to the ILGWU.
IWW
The Industrial Workers of the World, an organization that opposed capitalism altogether, they would often use radical tactics to get their voices heard, such as industrial sabotage.
Robert M. La Follette
He was a progressive governor that wanted election reforms, and he formed commissions to oversee transportation, civil services, and taxation.
Seventeenth Amendment
This amendment, ratified in 1913, allowed voters to vote Senators directly into office, as opposed to having the legislature vote for them.
Secret Ballot
New secret ballots were being used, that made people’s votes more anonymous.
Initiative
This allows voters to put a proposed law on the ballot for public approval.
Referendum
Allows citizens to vote on a recently passed law, to see its public approval. Citizens can also revoke the law in enough votes against it are made.
Recall
This allows citizens to remove an elected official from office by holding an official vote.