Chapter 16 Holleman

conscription
military draft, had been established as a regular practice in most Western countries, except for the U.S. and Britain
What are the 5 factors that made war impractical?
1. last major war in Europe was in 1890
2. Royal houses had intermarried, so they would be fighting their relatives
3. World had become smaller due to quicker communication such as the telephone and telegraph
4. Anti-war societies in Europe
5. International conferences who met periodically to discuss problems to avoid war
What are the 4 Factors making War likely?
1. Nationalism had grown(French want revenge, Germany makes other countries feel threatened)
2. Imperialism(Germany wants to catch up on territory)
3. Militarism(army’s doubled and new weapons were formed)
4. Alliances were formed
mobilization
the process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war, considered an act of was
Triple Alliance
the alliance between Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy(backs out and waits to be wooed)
Triple Entente
the alliance between France, Great Britain, and Russia
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
the heir to the throne of Austria Hungary,people of his country hated him, he and his wife visited Sarjevo, Bosnia where members of the Serbian terrorist group the Black Hand tried to blow up the car that the Archduke and his wife were riding in but failed, one of the members Gavrilo Princip succeeded in shooting both of them
What is the Black Hand?
a Serbian terrorist organization that wanted Bosnia to be free of Austria-Hungary and to become a part of a large Serbian kingdom
Gavrilo Princip
a 19 year old Bosnian Serb who succeeded in shooting the Archduke and his wife
Emperor William II
ruler of Germany, sent Austria-Hungary a blank check saying that they could rely on Germany’s full support even if it leads to war
Czar Nicholas II
leader of Russia, an autocratic ruler who relied on his army and bureaucracy to hold his regimine, ordered partial mobilization of the Russian army against Austria-Hungary but they couldn’t just mobilize against Austria-Hungary because it would cause chaos in the army so he ordered a full mobilization knowing that Germany would consider this an act of war
Who declares war 1st?
Austria-Hungary
Who mobilizes first?
Russia
Who is blamed for starting WWI even though they didn’t?
Germany
General Alfred von Sclieffen
drew up the German military plan known as the Schlieffen Plan
What was the Schlieffen Plan?
it called for a two-front war with France and Russia, who had formed a military alliance,according to the plan Germany would conduct a small holding action against Russia while most of the German army would rapidly invade France and then they would move east against Russia
Why did the Schlieffen Plan fail?
Russia mobilized 1st
propaganda
ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
trench warfare
fighting from ditches protected by barbed wire, as in WWI
After the declarations of war what are the alliances?
Central powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey
Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Russia, ITaly, U.S. , China, Belgium, Serbia, and others
Why did Italy join the Allied Powers?
they were promised 3 cities
How did Italy betray their German and Austrian allies? What was the result?
Italy attacked Austria and then joined the Triple Entente
What was the Triple Entente called when Italy joined?
the Allied Powers or the Allies
war of attrition
a war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses, such as WWI
total war
a war that involves complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields
What did total war lead to?
an increase in government powers and the manipulation of public opinion to keep the war effort going
planned economies
an economic system directed by government agencies
Defence of the Realm Act (DOMA)
British Parliament passed this act which allowed the government to arrest protesters as traitors, newspapers were censored and sometimes their publications were suspended
Lawrence of Arabia
a British officer who urged Arab princes to revolt against their Ottoman overlords, which eventually destroyed the Ottoman empire
Admiral Holtzendorff
German naval officer, assured the emperor of Germany that not one American will land on the continent, but he was very wrong
Woodrow Wilson
United States President, he said the men and women “who remain to till the soil and man the factories are no less a part of the army than the men beneath the battle flags” , he believed everyone was important during the war
How was Russia unprepared for the total war of WWI?
both militarily and technologically, they had no competent military leaders, Czar Nicholas II insisted on taking over despite his lack of training, Russian industry was unable to produce the weapons needed for the army
soviets
a Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers, represented the more radical interests of the lower classes
war communism
in WWI Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grin from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control, used to ensure regular supplies for the Red Army
revolutionary terror
another Communist instrument to add an element of fear to the Communist regime and was aimed at the destruction of all those who opposed the new regime, the Red secret police (Cheka) started this
Alexandra
Czar Nicholas II’s German born wife, she was a willful and stubborn women who had fallen under the influence of Rasputin, she believed that Rasputin was holy because he stopped the bleeding of her son, Alexandra made all of the important decisions, which were influenced by Rasputin, while Czar Nicholas II was at the battlefield
Grigori Rasputin
an uneducated Siberian peasant who claimed to be a holy man, highly regarded as holy by Alexandra because he stopped her son’s bleeding, influenced decisions that Alexandra made and interfered in government affairs, he was assassinated
Alexander Kerensky
headed the provisional government in Russia, decided to carry on in WWI to preserve Russia’s honor, this decision was a major blunder because it satisfied neither the workers nor the peasants, who were tired and angry from years of suffering
Bolsheviks
began as a small faction of a Marxist party called the Russian Social Democrats, came under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, under him they became a party dedicated to violent revolution, they reflected the discontent of the people of Russia, they promised an end to war, the redistribution of all land to peasants, the transfer of factories and industries from capitalist to committees of workers, and the transfer of government from provisional government to the soviets
What are the Bolsheviks 3 slogans?
“Peace,Land,Bread”
“Worker Control of Production”
“All Power to the Soviets”
V.I. Lenin
leader of the Bolsheviks, believed that only violent revolution could destroy the capitalist system, thought that the Bolsheviks should work toward gaining control of the soldiers,workers, and peasants and use them to overthrow the provisional government
Treaty of Brest-Liovsk
signed by Lenin(Russia) and Germany, Russia gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces
Civil War in Russia
against the Communist (Red) Army and the Allies and many people opposed to the Communist (Bolshevik) regime
Leon Trotsky
a dedicated revolutionary, head of the Petrograd soviet, an organizational genius , commissar of war who reinstated the draft and insisted on rigid discipline
How had Lenin and the Communists triumphed in the civil war over what seemed to be overwhelming forces?
the Red Army was a well-disciplined fighting force, the disunity of the anti-Communist forces weakened their efforts,war communism, revolutionary terror, the presence of foreign armies on Russian soil enabled them to appeal to the powerful force of Russian patriotism
First Battle of the Marne
French military leaders loaded 2 thousand Parisian taxicab with fresh troops and sent them to the front line
Battle of Tannenburg
Russia was defeated by Germany
Battle of Masurian Lakes
Russians were chased out of Prussia
Who is the Red Baron?
an ace pilot because of how many planes he shot down, part of the Flying Circus
What are the 4 reasons the U.S entered the war?
1. long standing ties to Britian and France
2. Germany starts doing unrestricted submarine warfare
3. Zimmerman Note
4. “To make the world safe for democracy” -President Woodrow Wilson
armistice
a truce or agreement to end fighting
reparation
payment made to the victors by the vanquished to cover the costs of a war
mandate
a nation governed by another nation on behalf of the League of Nations
Enrich von Ludendorff
guided German military operations, tried to break the military stale mate but failed , he informed the German leader that the war was lost and demanded the government to ask for pace immediately
Friedrich Ebert
lead the Social Democratsof Germany, announced the creation of a democratic republic
German Communist Party
a group of radical socialists who were unhappy with the moderate policies of the Social Democrats, leaders were Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht were killed when they tried to seize power in Berlin
David Lloyd George
prime minister of Great Britain, his goal was to make the German pay for this dreadful war
Georges Clemenceau
the premier of France
Who made the most important decisions at the Paris Peace Conference?
Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, and David Lloyd George
Treaty of Versailles
Ended the war , peace agreement , new map of Europe,
How did the British government try to eliminate opposition from the people who were opposed to WWI?
British Parliament passed the Defence of the Realm Act (DOMA) which allowed the government to arrest protesters as traitors, newspapers were censored and sometimes their publications were suspended
Explain the social changes promised by the Bolsheviks slogans.
they promised an end to war, the redistribution of all land to peasants, the transfer of factories and industries from capitalist to committees of workers, and the transfer of government from provisional government to the soviets
State the significance of the following dates: 1914, 1917,1918.
1914: WWI starts
1917: U.S. enters war
1918: WWI ends
Describe the role and contribution of women during WWI. What was their status after the war?
They took over the men’s jobs during the war , they earned higher wages were kicked out of jobs after the war and reviews the right to vote and social status
Why were Alexandra and Rasputin able to control the czars government during much of WWI?
Czar Nicholas II was at the war front , Alexandra headed government while he was gone and let Rasputin influence her
How did the international allies help to draw nations into WWI?
If their were no alliances a war wouldn’t have started
Why was a “breakthrough” such an important military goal in the war?
Because if they achieved a breakthrough they would gain at least a little but of land in the stalemate
What did the creation of the League of Nations have to do with Woodrow Wilson’s willingness to sign the Treaty of Versailles?
It was his baby , he thought it would prevent more world wars and that they could iron out problems there
Why did Russia withdraw from the war? How did this affect Germany?
because of the Russian Revolution
What innovations in military warfare occurred during WWI?
trench warfare, submarines, machine guns, chemical weapons, airplanes, tanks