Chapter 15 Quiz

Which theory describes how we explain others’ behavior as being due to internal dispositions or external situations?

A) cognitive dissonance theory
B) reward theory
C) two-factor theory
D) attribution theory

Two neighboring nations are each stockpiling weapons. Each sees its neighbor’s actions as an act of aggression and its own actions as self-defense. Evidently, these nations are victims of

A) prejudice.
B) groupthink.
C) self-serving bias.
D) the fundamental attribution error.

When male students in an experiment were told that a woman to whom they would be speaking had been instructed to act in a friendly or unfriendly way, most of them subsequently attributed her behavior to

A) the situation.
B) the situation and her personal disposition.
C) her personal disposition.
D) their own skill or lack of skill in a social situation.

Professor Washington’s students did very poorly on the last exam. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error might lead her to conclude that the class did poorly because

A) the test was unfair.
B) not enough time was given for students to complete the test.
C) students were distracted by some social function on campus.
D) students were unmotivated.

Which of the following is true?

A) Attitudes and actions rarely correspond.
B) Attitudes predict behavior about half the time.
C) Attitudes are excellent predictors of behavior.
D) Attitudes predict behavior under certain conditions.

Which of the following is an example of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?

A) To persuade a customer to buy a product a store owner offers a small gift.
B) After agreeing to wear a small “Enforce Recycling” lapel pin, a woman agrees to collect signatures on a petition to make recycling required by law.
C) After offering to sell a car at a ridiculously low price, a car salesperson is forced to tell the customer the car will cost $1000 more.
D) All of these are examples.

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Before she gave a class presentation favoring gun control legislation, Wanda opposed it. Her present attitude favoring such legislation can best be explained by

A) attribution theory.
B) cognitive dissonance theory.
C) reward theory.
D) evolutionary psychology.

According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when

A) a person’s behavior is not based on strongly held attitudes.
B) two people have conflicting attitudes and find themselves in disagreement.
C) an individual does something that is personally disagreeable.
D) an individual is coerced into doing something that he or she does not want to do.

Which of the following situations should produce the greatest cognitive dissonance?

A) A soldier is forced to carry out orders he finds disagreeable.
B) A student who loves animals has to dissect a cat in order to pass biology.
C) As part of an experiment, a subject is directed to deliver electric shocks to another person.
D) A student volunteers to debate an issue, taking the side he personally disagrees with.

Which of the following phenomena is best explained by cognitive dissonance theory?

A) group polarization
B) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
C) normative social influence
D) informational social influence

Conformity increased under which of the following conditions in Asch’s studies of conformity?

A) The group had three or more people.
B) The group had high status.
C) Individuals were made to feel insecure.
D) All of these conditions increased conformity.

Which of the following is important in promoting conformity in individuals?

A) whether an individual’s behavior will be observed by others in the group
B) whether the individual is male or female
C) the size of the room in which a group is meeting
D) whether the individual is of a higher status than other group members

José is the one student member on his school’s board of trustees. At the board’s first meeting, José wants to disagree with the others on several issues but in each case decides to say nothing. Studies on conformity suggest all except one of the following are factors in José’s not speaking up. Which one is not a factor?

A) The board is a large group.
B) The board is prestigious and most of its members are well known.
C) The board members are already aware that José and the student body disagree with them on these issues.
D) Because this is the first meeting José has attended, he feels insecure and not fully competent.

Subjects in Asch’s line-judgment experiment conformed to the group standard when their judgments were observed by others but not when they were made in private. This tendency to conform in public demonstrates

A) social facilitation.
B) overjustification.
C) informational social influence.
D) normative social influence.

Maria recently heard a speech calling for a ban on aerosol sprays that endanger the earth’s ozone layer. Maria’s subsequent decision to stop using aerosol sprays is an example of

A) informational social influence.
B) normative social influence.
C) deindividuation.
D) social facilitation.

In his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of participants

A) refused to shock the learner even once.
B) complied with the experiment until the “learner” first indicated pain.
C) complied with the experiment until the “learner” began screaming in agony.
D) complied with all the demands of the experiment.

Based on findings from Milgram’s obedience studies, participants would be less likely to follow the experimenter’s orders when

A) they hear the “learner” cry out in pain.
B) they merely administer the test while someone else delivers the shocks.
C) the “learner” is an older person or mentions having some physical problem.
D) they see another person disobey instructions.

Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his studies of obedience?

A) Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process.
B) Most people are able, under the proper circumstances, to suppress their natural aggressiveness.
C) The need to be accepted by others is a powerful motivating force.
D) He reached all of these conclusions.

Which of the following would most likely be subject to social facilitation?

A) proofreading a page for spelling errors
B) typing a letter with accuracy
C) playing a difficult piece on a musical instrument
D) running quickly around a track

The phenomenon in which individuals lose their identity and relinquish normal restraints when they are part of a group is called

A) groupthink.
B) cognitive dissonance.
C) empathy.
D) deindividuation.

Concluding her presentation on deindividuation, Renée notes that deindividuation is less likely in situations that promote

A) anonymity.
B) decreased self-awareness.
C) increased self-awareness.
D) the fundamental attribution error.

Which of the following statements is true?

A) Groups are almost never swayed by minority opinions.
B) Group polarization is most likely to occur when group members frequently disagree with one another.
C) Groupthink provides the consensus needed for effective decision making.
D) A group that is like-minded will probably not change its opinions through discussion.

Jane and Sandy were best friends in their first year of university. Jane joined a sorority; Sandy didn’t. By the end of their last year, they found that they had less in common with each other than with the other members of their respective circles of friends. Which of the following phenomena most likely explains their feelings?

A) group polarization
B) groupthink
C) deindividuation
D) social facilitation

Opening her mail, Joan discovers a romantic greeting card from her boyfriend. According to the two-factor theory, she is likely to feel the most intense romantic feelings if, prior to reading the card, she has just

A) completed her daily run.
B) finished reading a chapter in her psychology textbook.
C) awakened from a nap.
D) finished eating lunch.

Which of the following is most likely to promote groupthink?

A) The group’s leader fails to take a firm stance on an issue.
B) A minority faction holds to its position.
C) The group consults with various experts.
D) Group polarization is evident.

Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of personal control and social control of our behavior?

A) Situational influences on behavior generally are much greater than personal influences.
B) Situational influences on behavior generally are slightly greater than personal influences.
C) Personal influences on behavior generally are much greater than situational influences.
D) Situational and personal influences interact in determining our behavior.

Research has found that for a minority to succeed in swaying a majority, the minority must

A) make up a sizable portion of the group.
B) express its position as consistently as possible.
C) express its position in the most extreme terms possible.
D) be able to convince a key majority leader.

Alexis believes that all male athletes are self-centered and sexist. Her beliefs are an example of

A) ingroup bias.
B) groupthink.
C) stereotypes.
D) the fundamental attribution error.

The often overgeneralized belief about a group of people is referred to as ________; exhibiting unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group is called ________.

A) social loafing; group polarization
B) stereotyping; discrimination
C) conformity; obedience
D) normative social influence; informational social influence

(Close-Up) Which of the following is an example of implicit prejudice?

A) Jake, who is White, gives higher evaluations to essays he believes to be written by Blacks than to White-authored essays.
B) Carol believes that White people are arrogant.
C) Brad earns more than Jane, despite having the same job skills, performance level, and seniority.
D) In certain countries, women are not allowed to drive.

People with power and status may become prejudiced because

A) they tend to justify the social inequalities between themselves and others.
B) those with less status and power tend to resent them.
C) those with less status and power appear less capable.
D) they feel proud and are boastful of their achievements.

The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the

A) just-world phenomenon.
B) phenomenon of ingroup bias.
C) fundamental attribution error.
D) mirror-image perception principle.

We tend to perceive the members of an ingroup as ________ and the members of an outgroup as ________.

A) similar to one another; different from one another
B) different from one another; similar to one another
C) above average in ability; below average in ability
D) below average in ability; above average in ability

Given the tendency of people to categorize information according to preformed schemas, which of the following stereotypes would Juan, a 65-year-old political liberal and fitness enthusiast, be most likely to have?

A) “People who exercise regularly are very extraverted.”
B) “All political liberals are advocates of a reduced defense budget.”
C) “Young people today have no sense of responsibility.”
D) “Older people are lazy.”

Students at State University are convinced that their school is better than any other; this most directly illustrates

A) an ingroup bias.
B) prejudice and discrimination.
C) the scapegoat effect.
D) the just-world phenomenon.

Ever since their cabin lost the camp softball competition, the campers have become increasingly hostile toward one camper in their cabin, blaming her for every problem in the cabin. This behavior is best explained in terms of

A) the ingroup bias.
B) prejudice.
C) the scapegoat theory.
D) catharsis.

Which of the following was NOT mentioned in the text discussion of the roots of prejudice?

A) people’s tendency to overestimate the similarity of people within groups
B) people’s tendency to assume that exceptional, or especially memorable, individuals are unlike the majority of members of a group
C) people’s tendency to assume that the world is just and that people get what they deserve
D) people’s tendency to discriminate against those they view as “outsiders”

Violent criminals often have diminished activity in the ________ of the brain, which play(s) an important role in ________.

A) occipital lobes; aggression
B) hypothalamus; hostility
C) frontal lobes; controlling impulses
D) temporal lobes; patience

Aggression is defined as behavior that

A) hurts another person.
B) is intended to hurt another person.
C) is hostile, passionate, and produces physical injury.
D) has all of these characteristics.

Which of the following is true about aggression?

A) It varies too much to be instinctive in humans.
B) It is just one instinct among many.
C) It is instinctive but shaped by learning.
D) It is the most important human instinct.

Research studies have found a positive correlation between aggressive tendencies in animals and levels of the hormone

A) estrogen.
B) adrenaline.
C) noradrenaline.
D) testosterone.

Regarding the influence of alcohol and testosterone on aggressive behavior, which of the following is true?

A) Consumption of alcohol increases aggressive behavior; injections of testosterone reduce aggressive behavior.
B) Consumption of alcohol reduces aggressive behavior; injections of testosterone increase aggressive behavior.
C) Consumption of alcohol and injections of testosterone both promote aggressive behavior.
D) Consumption of alcohol and injections of testosterone both reduce aggressive behavior.

Summarizing his report on the biology of aggression, Sam notes that

A) biology does not significantly influence aggression.
B) when one identical twin has a violent temperament, the other member of the twin pair rarely does.
C) hormones and alcohol influence the neural systems that control aggression.
D) testosterone reduces dominance behaviors in animals.

After waiting in line for an hour to buy concert tickets, Teresa is told that the concert is sold out. In her anger she pounds her fist on the ticket counter, frightening the clerk. Teresa’s behavior is best explained by

A) evolutionary psychology.
B) deindividuation.
C) reward theory.
D) the frustration-aggression principle.

Research studies have indicated that the tendency of viewers to misperceive normal sexuality, devalue their partners, and trivialize rape is

A) increased by exposure to pornography.
B) not changed after exposure to pornography.
C) decreased in men by exposure to pornography.
D) decreased in both men and women by exposure to pornography.

Research studies have shown that frequent exposure to sexually explicit films

A) makes a woman’s friendliness seem more sexual.
B) diminishes the attitude that rape is a serious crime.
C) may lead individuals to devalue their partners.
D) may produce all of these effects.

Most researchers agree that

A) media violence is a factor in aggression.
B) there is a negative correlation between media violence and aggressiveness.
C) paradoxically, watching excessive pornography ultimately diminishes an individual’s aggressive tendencies.
D) media violence is too unreal to promote aggression in viewers.

Which of the following factors is the most powerful predictor of friendship?

A) similarity in age
B) common racial and religious background
C) similarity in physical attractiveness
D) physical proximity

The mere exposure effect demonstrates that

A) familiarity breeds contempt.
B) opposites attract.
C) birds of a feather flock together.
D) familiarity breeds fondness.

Most people prefer mirror-image photographs of their faces. This is best explained by

A) the principle of equity.
B) the principle of self-disclosure.
C) the mere exposure effect.
D) mirror-image perceptions.

Ahmed and Monique are on a blind date. Which of the following will probably be most influential in determining whether they like each other?

A) their personalities
B) their beliefs
C) their social skills
D) their physical attractiveness

Having read the chapter, which of the following is best borne out by research on attraction?

A) Birds of a feather flock together.
B) Opposites attract.
C) Familiarity breeds contempt.
D) Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

In one experiment, college men were physically aroused and then introduced to an attractive woman. Compared with men who had not been aroused, these men

A) reported more positive feelings toward the woman.
B) reported more negative feelings toward the woman.
C) were ambiguous about their feelings toward the woman.
D) were more likely to feel that the woman was “out of their league” in terms of attractiveness.

The deep affection that is felt in long-lasting relationships is called ________ love; this feeling is fostered in relationships in which________.

A) passionate; there is equity between the partners
B) passionate; traditional roles are maintained
C) companionate; there is equity between the partners
D) companionate; traditional roles are maintained

Research studies indicate that in an emergency situation, the presence of others often

A) prevents people from even noticing the situation.
B) prevents people from interpreting an unusual event as an emergency.
C) prevents people from assuming responsibility for assisting.
D) leads to all of these behaviors.

Increasing the number of people that are present during an emergency tends to

A) increase the likelihood that people will cooperate in rendering assistance.
B) decrease the empathy that people feel for the victim.
C) increase the role that social norms governing helping will play.
D) decrease the likelihood that anyone will help.

Which of the following is associated with an increased tendency on the part of a bystander to offer help in an emergency situation?

A) being in a good mood
B) having recently needed help and not received it
C) observing someone as he or she refuses to offer help
D) being a female

Mr. and Mrs. Samuels are constantly fighting, and each perceives the other as hard-headed and insensitive. Their conflict is being fueled by

A) self-disclosure.
B) stereotypes.
C) a social norm.
D) mirror-image perceptions.

Which of the following strategies would be most likely to foster positive feelings between two conflicting groups?

A) Take steps to reduce the likelihood of mirror-image perceptions.
B) Separate the groups so that tensions diminish.
C) Increase the amount of contact between the two conflicting groups.
D) Have the groups work on a superordinate goal.

Which of the following best describes how GRIT works?

A) The fact that two sides in a conflict have great respect for the other’s strengths prevents further escalation of the problem.
B) The two sides engage in a series of reciprocated conciliatory acts.
C) The two sides agree to have their differences settled by a neutral, third-party mediator.
D) The two sides engage in cooperation in those areas in which shared goals are possible.