the selling or buying of a position in a Christian Church
St. Francis of Assisi
The son of a rich merchant, Francis treated everyone as spiritual brothers and founded the Franciscans, an order of Friars.
Relating to a style of church architecture that developed in Medieval Europe featuring ribbed vaults, stained-glass windows, flying butresses, pointed arches, and tall spires.
A pope who called for the crusades, a series of wars intended to reclaim the holy land.
One of the expeditions in which medival Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
A Muslim leader who reclaimed Jerusalem and chased Crusaders back into their own land.
The most powerful Muslim ruler
Richard the Lion-Hearted
A ruthless English king who wished to reclaim Jerusalem
the effort by Christian leaders to drive Muslims out of Spain from 1100s to 1492
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy like the Spanish one in the 1400s
Three Field System
A system of farming developed in Medieval Europe, in which farmland was divided into three fields of equal size and each was planted with a winter crop, a spring crop, and one was left unplanted.
A medieval association of people working at the same occupation, which controlled its members wages and prices.
A medieval town dweller
The everyday language of people in a region or country
A writer who wrote The Divine Comedy in Italian
Wrote the Canterbury Tales in English
A scholar who wrote the Summa Theologica which argued that basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument. He combined Greek and Christian thought.
School men who used knowledge of Aristotle to teach law and government.
William the Conqueror
the duke of Normandy; he claimed the English crown, invaded England, declared all land his personal property, granted fiefs, and developed a centralized government.
William the Conqueror’s descendant; married Eleanor of Aquitaine. Henry strengthened the royal courts of justice, introduced the jury, and established common law.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
married Louis VII of France and Henry II, and gave birth to two kings – Richard the Lion-hearted and John. By marrying Henry II she gave him the French land of Aquitaine.
“Great Charter”, a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John in 1215
A body of representatives that makes laws for a nation
The ruler of the Capetian Dynasty. He sought to decrease the power of English kings and increase the territory of France. HE was also named Augustus “majestic” and named the first French king to become more powerful than any of his vassals. He also strengthened central government by establishing royal officials called bailiffs.
Philip’s grandson, he was very pious and was made a saint. He made a French appeals court which could overturn the decisions of local courts. His French appeals court strengthened the monarchy and weakened feudal ties.
This French city housed popes for 67 years; the switch from Rome to this city weakened the Church.
A division in the medieval Roman Catholic church, during which rival popes were established in Avignon and Rome.
An English professor who argued that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the true head of the church. He believed that the clergy should own no land or wealth. He also taught that the bible alone was the final authority for Christian life.
A Bohemian professor who taught that the Bible was higher than the pope. He was excommunicated in 1412 and burned as a heretic.
This deadly disease spread across Asia and Europe in the mid 14th century, killing millions of people.
Hundred Years’ War
A conflict in which England and France battled on French soil on and off from 1337 to 1453
Joan of Arc
A teenage French peasant who felt moved by God to restor France from its English conquerors and give the crown to Charles VI’s son. She broke the siege of Orleans, crowned Charles at Reims, was captured by the Burgundians, and was burned at the Stake by the English Church.
Village priests, Simony, Lay Investiture
Three problems faced the church: ___________________ were married and had families which was against church rulings, positions in the church were sold by bishops, a practice called _______________, and the practice of ___________________ put kings in control of church bishops.
This founding of this monastery in Cluny, France began church reforms.
Pope Leo IX
This pope enforced Church laws against simony and the marriage of priests.
Pope Gregory VII
This pope followed Leo’s path and continued to purify the church and extend reforms.
The Church was restructured to resemble a _______________.
Name for the pope’s advisors
Chastity, Poverty, and obedience
Vows taken by friars
This group of friars emphasized the importance of study
This group of friars emphasized love of nature.
The first pope to call for a Crusade
This Byzantine emperor sent an appeal to Pope Urban II asking for help against Muslim Turks.
Another name for the crusades
Recover Jerusalem and the Holy Land
The goal of the Crusades was to ______________________________ from the Muslim Turks.
the symbol of the crusades
God Wills It
The battle cry of the Crusades
Kings and the Church saw the Crusades as a chance to get rid of _____ who fought each other
Geography, climate, or geography
Crusaders knew nothing of the ___________________________ of the Holy Land
Strategy or leader
The crusaders had no ________________.
This land was won after the first crusade and four feudal states were carved from it.
This Crusade was organized to recapture Edessa.
Philip Augustus, Barbarossa, Richard the Lion-Hearted
These three kings lead the third crusades, but eventually only Richard was left
This crusade looted the city of Constantinople
Capital of Eastern church
Capital of Western Church
Later crusades went here
A long effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain.
The last kingdom held onto by the Muslims.
A tribunal held by the Church to suppress heresy.
Weakened the papacy, strengthened European kings, and increased trade with the Middle East
Effects of the Crusades
In this year three armies of knights gathered outside Constantinople
July 15, 1099
On this city the Crusades won Edessa
In this year Edessa was reconquered by the Turks
In this year Jerusalem fell to Saladin
In this year Richard and Saladin agreed to a truce
After the third crusade, Muslims would retain control of Jerusalem but unarmed ________________ could visit holy sites.
On this year the Fourth Crusade was called for
In this year the fourth Crusade looted Constantinople, ended the Crusade.
This pope called for the fourth crusade
Horses could plow __________ the land plowed by oxen
Larger families, less disease, longer life, increase in population, clearing of forests
Effects of three field system
Main good traded at fairs
As a result of trade, towns no longer depended on _________________-
An association of people who work at the same occupation, a union.
Wages, prices, and trade
Guilds controlled ___________________-
Apprentice, Journeyman, Masterpiece
the three stages to becoming a guild Master
A sin where a Christian lends money at interest
This group of people took up finances because of exclusion from guilds
Ports, Crossroads, Hilltops, and Rivers
Town were located on these four places of trade
This group fled manors to leave for towns
Towns were very _________________, however many people continued to move to them
A year and a day
The length of time a serf had to live in a town to earn freedom
Government or the Church
Scholars wanted a job in the __________________________________.
Christine de Pisan
The City of Ladies
Ships, Navigation, and Weapons
Muslims had superior ______________.
The _____________ increased contact with Muslim writings which lead to learning in science, philosophy, law, and mathematics.
Alfred the Great
The only English King that can turn back the VIkings
Land of the Engels
A Danish King who conquered England
Alfred’s cousin, when this king died without an heir, it caused an English Civil War
William the Conqueror
King Edward’s son, the Duke of Norman invaded England to claim the throne
An Anglo-saxon who also wanted the English Throne
This man died at the battle of Hastings resulting in William the Conqueror taking the throne.
England, Normandy, and France
After Henry II married Eleanor of Aquitaine, English kings controlled these three lands
Hold and add to French Land and strengthen power over the nobles and the church
The two goals of English kings
Courts of Justice
Henry II strengthened ___________________ by sending judges to England once a year
This ruler introduced the jury system
This body of law was formed by the ruling of judges that were sent to Courts of Justice by Henry II
Richard the Lion-Hearted and John
Henry II’s two sons
This ruler lost all of Normandy and the land North of France
John ________________ for losing wars, which led to people disliking him
This document guaranteed basic political rights, no taxation without representation, a jury trial, and protection by the law
Establishment of Courts, Magna Carta, Parliament
Three major government steps in England
2 burghesses, 2 knights, bishops, lords, and commoners
Composition of Parliament
The name of Parliament when it included Commoners
This French ruler reconquered Normandy from King John and tripled the land under his control
Had the title of Augustus, he was the most powerful capetian king
He was known as the ideal king because he was very pious and was also an effective ruler
This ruler made the French Appeals Court that could overturn decisions of local courts
This ruler included the third estate in the Estates-General meeting to gain support against the pope who refused to make the priests pay taxesf
This pope was taken prisoner after he issued a Papal Bull, in response to King Philip IV, where kings must obey popes
This pope moved the papal city from Rome to Avignon
This pope had an arrogant personality and a desire for reform
This French Pope was chosen instead of Pope Urban VI
Pope Urban VI and Pope Clement VII ______________________ each other which resulted in the Great Schism
Council of Constance
This group ended the Great Schism by choosing Martin V as the pope
The Bubonic Plague killed _________________ of the European population
Genoese Merchant Ship
A ___________________ arrived in Sicily carrying the plague
This group was blamed for the plague
Effects of the Plague
Scarce work force, abandoned farmland, sheep pastures, fall of manorial system, and peasant revolts
Because of the plague, people had an increased awareness of _____________
This English Ruler claimed the Capetian throne as the grandson of Philip IV
Crecy, Poiters, Agincourt
These three battles marked the end of chivalry
Siege of Orleans
One of Joan of Arc’s major victories, she won this battle by charging after retreating
Joan of Arc
After crowning Charles at Reims, this woman was burned at the stake as a heretic and a witch
A feeling of ________________ increased as a result of the Hundred Years’ War
War of the Roses
A war where two noble houses fought for the throne which ultimately strengthened Parliament
Great Schism, Wealth of Church, Discrediting of Church
These three things lead to the end of the age of faith