Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders

What is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the study of abnormal behavior?
Ellie is a graduate student in psychology at the local university. She is interested in one day specializing in the study of abnormal behavior. What area of psychology should she focus on in school?
Archaeologists have found skulls from as long ago as 3000 B.C. that bear evidence of an ancient surgical
technique, in which holes were cut into the skulls of live individuals in an attempt to release demons from the
possessed victim. This process is called __________.
Today, trephining is done to ___________.
Relieve pressure from fluids on the brain
It is not unreasonable to assume that in ancient times, signs of mental illness were believed to be caused by
You are a contestant on Jeopardy! and it is your turn. You say to Alex, “I’ll take Ancient Explanations of Mental
Illness for $100.” The answer is, “His was the first recorded attempt to explain abnormal behavior as due to some biological process.” The smile on your face reveals the confidence you have as you say ______________.
“Who is Hippocrates?”
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Hippocrates maintained that mental illness was __________.
Caused by imbalances of vital body fluids
Which of the following was NOT one of the four humors studied by Hippocrates?
Which of the following was one of the four humors studied by Hippocrates?
Which of the following is one of the bodily fluids that ancient Greeks linked to abnormal behaviors?
Black Bile
For those people in the Middle Ages who believed abnormal behavior resulted from spirit possession, the
treatment of choice was ______.
Ancient Greeks believed imbalances in ________ caused abnormality, while people living during the Middle
Ages believed it was caused by ________. However, many contemporary psychologists try to understand
psychological disorders in terms of the ________ model.
Bodily fluids; the devil; biopsychosocial
During the Renaissance, abnormal behavior was believed to result from ______.
What was the most likely outcome for a person who was mentally ill and accused of being a witch during the
Which of the following is one definition of abnormal behavior?
Behavior that is rare
As part of a fraternity initiation ritual, Saul is instructed to interrupt a school basketball game by running on the
court naked while singing the nursery rhyme “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star.” If Sam complies with this ritual, his
behavior would best illustrate ________.
Social Norm Deviance
What is the primary difficulty with applying the criterion of “social norm deviance” to define abnormal
Behavior that is considered disordered in one culture may be acceptable in anothe
The social or environmental setting of a person’s behavior is referred to as _________.
The Situational Context
You are a psychologist who is evaluating the behavior of a new client. The client tells you that he does not like
to wear clothing and that he walks around nude most of the time. In addition, he tells you that he lives in a society in which clothing is required and nudity is seen as abnormal. Which of the following is NOT a criterion by which you evaluate your client’s behavior as abnormal?
Subjective Discomfort
Which term refers to a way to define abnormality by comparing an individual’s behavior to the norms or
standards of the society in which an individual lives?
Social Norm Deviance
Nicholas is a man whom the local college students all think of as eccentric. Each day he stands on campus,
smiling at people as they walk by, and he is known for his ever-present greeting of “Good luck!” In fact, the students at this campus have come to refer to him as “Good Luck Nick.” Nobody knows if he has a home or if he is destitute, but Nicholas never asks for anything. Which of the four criteria of mental illness might Nicholas satisfy?
Social Norm Deviance
Maria is a retired factory worker who lives with anxiety. Due to the fear of having anxiety attacks, she does not
leave her house. This makes her feel trapped in her home, which creates distress. Which criterion would be most appropriate in deciding whether Maria’s case represents an example of abnormality?
Subjective Discomfort
Whenever Greta thinks about her life, she automatically bursts into tears. This example most clearly illustrates the impact of ________ in psychological disorders.
Subjective Discomfort
Which of the following is an example of subjective discomfort?
Worrying about everything most of the time
One sign of abnormality is when a person engages in behavior that creates a great deal of emotional distress or __________.
Subjective Discomfort
Any behavior that does not allow a person to function within or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life is considered __________.
Dave, a graduate student, has difficulty talking to groups. Unfortunately, he has chosen a career in which he must speak to large groups of people. The night before a presentation, he tosses and turns, and the resulting lack of sleep makes the situation worse. When he makes a presentation, he often becomes confused and stumbles over his words. As a result, he feels worthless and miserable. Which two criteria of abnormal behavior are most useful in analyzing this case?
Subjective discomfort and inability to function normally.
Any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes harm to others, or harms their ability to function in daily life, is called ___________.
A psychological disorder
The ______ model of mental illness explains that disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia are caused by chemical imbalances, genetic problems, brain damage or dysfunction, or some combination of those causes
Joanna is experiencing severe anxiety. Her psychiatrist attributes her disorder to a chemical imbalance. Her
psychiatrist is using the ___________ of abnormality
Biological Model
The biological model views psychological disorders as resulting from _____________.
Psychological Causes
The psychodynamic model of abnormal behavior is based on the work of ______.
The psychodynamic model holds that abnormal behavior is the result of ________.
Repressed thoughts, memories, and concerns
Dave’s wife suggests that he talk to a doctor because of his inability to cope with criticism. The doctor suggests
that Dave’s problem represents the expression of a repressed, unresolved, internal conflict buried in his unconscious mind that has its roots in Dave’s childhood. This view is typical of the ______ model of abnormality.
According to the behaviorists, disordered behavior is a result of _____________.
A set of learned responses
Linda is afraid of cats because, when she was a little girl, a cat scared her by jumping out of her closet and onto her face. As a result of this experience, Linda learned to be afraid of cats. Which model of abnormality offers the best explanation of Linda’s fear?
Which model of abnormality explains abnormal behavior as the result of a set of learned responses?
A behavioral therapist is working with a depressed client. Which of the following causes is the most likely focus of this therapist’s intervention?
Learned behaviors of depression
According to the cognitive perspective, disordered behavior is the result of _____________.
Illogical thinking patterns
Which model of abnormality views abnormal behavior as the result of illogical thinking?
A cognitive therapist is working with a depressed client. Which of the following causes is the likely focus of this
therapist’s intervention?
Distorted interpretations of life events
____________ is a term that refers to the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which a person’s behavior takes place.
Cultural Relativity
Some Asian cultures view mental illness as ____________.
A shameful thing that hurts the marriage chances of other family members
What do psychologists call disorders that are found only in particular cultures?
Cultural Syndromes
Which of the following culture-bound syndromes is found mostly in Western cultures?
Anorexia Nervosa
Which model of abnormality holds that physical, mental, and cultural factors are intertwined and that they must all be considered when dealing with psychology disorders?
The biopsychosocial model
_______ is used to help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).
DSM stands for:
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
The most recent version of the DSM is the ________.
The primary purpose of the DSM is to _____.
Help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders
Dr. Nwoambi is a psychologist who is currently evaluating a new client. Dr. Nwoambi would most likely refer to the _________ to assist her in diagnosing her client’s psychological disorder
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Which of the following statements is true about the DSM-5?
It describes symptoms and includes a checklist of specific criteria for diagnosis
In any given year, about ______ percent of adults over the age of 18 suffer from a mental disorder.
Which of the following is the most commonly diagnosed psychological disorder in the United States?
Major depressive disorder
What is the most frequently diagnosed anxiety disorder in the United States?
Specific Phobia
The tendency of those studying psychopathology to start seeing themselves as suffering from the illnesses being discussed is known as _____________.
Psychology student’s syndrome
Excessive or unrealistic fearfulness and worry are characteristic of ______.
Anxiety disorders
Which of the following statements is true about anxiety?
Some anxiety is realistic when its source is understandable.
Miguel has a great job, is well educated, and has a loving family. Despite these positive aspects of his life, he experiences anxiety every day. When asked by his therapist the reason for his anxiety, he says, “I don’t know why. I don’t have any reason to feel anxious, yet I worry all the time.” The therapist describes Miguel as having ______ anxiety
Free-floating anxiety refers to anxiety that is __________.
Unrelated to any realistic, known source
Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?
Manny has such an intense fear of flying insects that he hardly ever goes outside his house during the summer months. He is probably suffering from a ______.
An irrational, persistent fear of something is called a(n) ______.
Arlene has an irrational fear of flying in airplanes. She is probably suffering from a(n) ______.
An anxiety disorder that involves a fear of interacting with others or being in a social situation is called ______.
Social Anxiety Disorder
Fear of public speaking and stage fright are both examples of ______ phobias
People who have a(n) ______ are afraid of being evaluated in some negative way by others, so they tend to avoid situations that can be embarrassing.
Social Anxiety Disorder
Kaylee refuses to change in the locker room during gym class. She is afraid that someone will see her body,
make fun of it, and embarrass her. As a result, Kaylee skips gym class to avoid the situation. Based on this
information, it is possible that Kaylee has ________.
Social Anxiety Disorder
Which of the following types of anxiety disorders is related to a history of shyness in childhood?
Social Anxiety Disorder
Fears of snakes, thunderstorms, darkness, and water are classified as ______ phobias
An irrational fear of some object or specific situation is called ____________.
A Specific Phobia
What is the main difference between generalized anxiety disorder and phobic disorder?
Phobic disorder is linked to specific triggers, while generalized anxiety disorder is not linked to a
specific trigger
Which occupation would be especially difficult for a person who suffers from acrophobia?
Window Washer
Ted runs from the biology laboratory straight to his therapist’s office. He is sweating and fear is etched on his face. He asks the therapist to apologize to his teacher and says he hopes she will understand that his arachnophobia made it difficult for him to _____.
Look at a spider
Fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible if something should go wrong is
called ______.
Your aunt has a fear that makes it difficult for her to leave her home. She feels trapped and is unable to work or engage in any kind of activity that requires going outside of her home. You are not surprised when you find out your aunt is diagnosed with _________________.
Which of the following is the term used to describe a sudden onset of extreme panic, with various symptoms
including racing heart, rapid breathing, and sweating?
Panic Attack
Darcy is sitting at her desk in her office one day when, without warning, her heart begins racing rapidly, she has a sensation of being “out of her body,” and she experiences dulled vision and hearing, rapid breathing, and sweating. She thinks she is having a heart attack. Nothing she is doing seems to have caused such an episode. Her symptoms MOST resemble ______.
A Panic Attack
While each panic attack is different, the average duration of a panic attack is approximately how long?
10-15 Minutes.
An anxiety disorder characterized by frequent panic attacks that affect the person’s ability to function in day-today living is called ______.
Panic Disorder
During his college years, Jacob often experienced episodes of intense fear accompanied by the physical
sensations of a heart attack. Jacob might have experienced a ________ disorder while in college.
Leo worries all of the time. He worries about his money, his children, and his dog. His muscles are always tense and sore, he has trouble sleeping, is often irritable, and has difficulty concentrating. Leo’s symptoms sound most like ______.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A disorder in which excessive anxiety and worry occur more days than not for at least six months is called
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A disorder in which intruding thoughts that occur again and again are followed by repetitive, ritualistic behavior
meant to lower the anxiety caused by the thoughts is called ____________ disorder.
Obsessive Compulsive
Intruding thoughts that occur again and again are called _________. Repetitive, ritualistic behaviors are called ________.
Obsessions; compulsions
George is suffering from an obsessive-compulsive disorder. If he tries to stop his compulsive behaviors, he is likely to experience ______.
Severe Anxiety
________ is a repetitive behavior or mental act that an individual feels compelled to perform in response to an
A compulsion
Obsession is to compulsion as ________.
A thought is to behavior
As Carol and Ken are leaving for a trip, Carol repeatedly asks Ken, “Did we turn off the coffee pot?” For their entire trip, Carol worries about the coffee pot. Carol’s doubt about turning off the coffee pot is ________
An obsession
Each day, while Sid is sitting at his desk at work, he continually thinks about germs. Each time this occurs, he
washes his hands. Sid probably suffers from ___________.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
A disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, nightmares, poor sleep,
reliving the event, and concentration problems, lasting for more than one month, is called _________.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Ali, a war veteran, has had nightmares, flashbacks, and anxiety attacks for the past three years. Ali is most likely
suffering from _______________.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Linda’s house was flooded in a hurricane. Upon losing her home, she had nightmares, disturbed sleep, and
anxiety that lasted about two weeks. Linda most likely suffered from ______________.
Acute stress disorder
After returning from the Iraq war, Caddell was plagued by nightmares of the attacks. In addition, he avoided
anything associated with the war and was hypervigilant for danger. He has been home for nearly six months, butthese symptoms continue. Caddell might have ________.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Which of the following is a symptom of acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder?
Persistent reliving of the event
Which of the following statements correctly describes the rate of PTSD among combat-exposed military
personnel since 2001?
The rate of PTSD has tripled since 2001
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the research on post-traumatic stress disorder?
Men seem to be more vulnerable than women
The psychodynamic model views anxiety as __________.
A danger signal that repressed conflicts are threatening to surface
Dr. Garcia is treating a patient who has a fear of knives. He believes his patient’s fear is a kind of displacement,
in which the phobic object is a symbol of whatever his patient has buried deep inside her unconscious mind. Dr.Garcia’s view is consistent with that of ___________.
The Psychodynamic Model
The behavioral perspective views anxiety as __________.
A learned reaction
Liza has an anxiety disorder. She is currently seeing a therapist who believes that anxiety disorders are a result of illogical, irrational thought processes. Liza is probably seeking treatment from a _____________.
Cognitive Psychologist
Sandy has a tendency to make everything seem much worse than it actually is. Beck would say that Sandy has a tendency to engage in ___________.
“Oh my gosh,” Sara exclaims as she leaves her biology exam. “I just KNOW that I got number 48 wrong! I just
know that I’m going to fail this class.” According to a cognitive psychologist, Sara is engaging in which of the
following distorted thought processes?
All-or- nothing thinking
While talking with his best friend Johnny, Maurice, who is clearly down and out, says “Dude, I just have no
luck with girls at all. I asked Gina out last night and she turned me down flat. Nobody will EVER want to go out
with me. Why am I such a loser?” Because Johnny has recently taken an abnormal psychology class, he uses a
cognitive perspective to answer Maurice. Which of the following might Johnny say?
“Hey, pal, you are really overgeneralizing. Just because Gina said no doesn’t mean that all girls will!”
According to the biological perspective, generalized anxiety disorder is _________.
Linked to an imbalance in several neurotransmitters in the nervous system
Which of the following culture-bound disorders is most commonly seen in Latin America?
Ataque de nervios
The disorder or culture-bound syndrome in which men fear that their penis is shrinking is primarily found in
which country?
Disorders characterized by disturbances in emotion are known as ______ disorders.
The term affect is used by psychologists to refer to ______.
Severe depression that comes on suddenly or seems to have no external cause is called ______.
Major Depressive Disorder
Which of the following is a characteristic of major depressive disorder?
Diminished interest in daily activities
Which of the following is a legitimate hypothesis that explains why the rate of depression appears to be twice
as high for women as compared to men across various cultures?
The different social roles played by women predispose them to depression.
Which of the following is true regarding gender differences in the diagnosis of depression?
Gender differences are nonexistent in college students and single adults.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) seems to be related to __________.
Low levels of sunlight
__________ is a mood disorder that is caused by the body’s reaction to low levels of light present in the winter months
Seasonal affective disorder
A person who suffers from bipolar disorder alternates between periods of ________.
Depression and Manic Episodes
Padma is extremely confident and feels that lately she needs very little sleep. In addition, she reports that her
thoughts seem to be going fast—similar to watching three television shows at once. Padma most likely is
experiencing ________.
A Manic Episode
When a patient arrives in the emergency room, he is restless and irritable with unlimited energy and a rapid rate of speech. The attending psychiatrist believes the patient has taken cocaine or amphetamines and admits him for observation. The next day, the symptoms are the same. What condition with symptoms that are similar to those associated with amphetamine use might the psychiatrist now consider as a condition that is relevant to the diagnosis?
What symptoms of bipolar disorder are present in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?
Which cognitive event, often attributed to the work of Martin Seligman, is hypothesized as contributing to the
development and maintenance of major depression?
Learned helplessness
Which of the following is the biological explanation for mood disorders?
They are a result of an imbalance of brain chemicals.
Which neurotransmitters are most important in the development of mood disorders?
Dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine
Which neurotransmitter is not implicated in the development of mood disorders?
Twin studies have shown that if one identical twin has either major depression or bipolar disorder, the chances that the other twin will develop a mood disorder are about ________ percent
40 to 70.
Tara and Sarah are identical twins. If Tara has bipolar disorder, then Sarah has ________.
A 40-70% chance of developing a mood disorder
People who are attempting to become extremely thin by refusing to eat suffer from __________________.
Anorexia Nervosa
Jenny has an intense interest in food but eats sparingly and with disgust. She has an intense fear of becoming
obese, and even though she looks emaciated, she still claims she “feels fat” and refuses to eat enough to maintain even a minimal normal body weight for her frame. She is most likely suffering from __________.
Anorexia Nervosa
As a serious dancer, Justine watches what she eats. She knows that she is underweight, but fears that if she
starts eating more that she will get fat. In addition to a preoccupation with food, she has also stopped menstruating. Her behaviors suggest that she might be suffering from ________.
Anorexia Nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by eating binges followed by self-induced vomiting is called ________.
. Each of the following is a symptom of bulimia nervosa EXCEPT ______.
Refusal to maintain body weight at or above minimal normal weight for age and height
The neurotransmitter associated with bulimia nervosa is ______________.
Which statement is CORRECT concerning the cultural components of eating disorders?
Eating disorders are found in both Western and non-Western cultures
Disorders in which there is a break in conscious awareness, memory, the sense of identity, or some
combination are called _________.
Dissociative Disorders
Steve’s psychiatrist notes that Steve is experiencing a disruption of the usually integrated functions of
consciousness, memory, and identity. Therefore, Steve most likely has a(n) ________ disorder
After being passed up for a promotion and then getting into a heated argument with his son, a man disappears.
He shows up two weeks later in another town with no memory of who he is or how he got there. He appears to be suffering from ______.
A dissociative disorder
A dissociative disorder characterized by a partial or complete loss of memory for personal information that is usually associated with a stressful or emotionally traumatic experience is known as ______.
Dissociative Amnesia
The police find a man who is disheveled and in a daze wandering through the downtown area. When the police ask him for his name, he seems bewildered. A search of missing persons photographs reveals that this man was reported missing three months ago in a town more than 700 miles away. The man is most likely suffering from _________.
Dissociative Fugue
A dissociative state that involves sudden travel from home, the taking on of a new identity, and amnesia
regarding the trip and one’s actual personal information is called ______.
Dissociative Fugue
In which disorder does a person seem to experience at least two or more distinct personalities existing in one
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Eve seeks treatment to learn how to relax. When her therapist hypnotizes her, her voice changes and someone claiming her name is “Joan” begins to speak. During therapy, 23 separate entities, each with its own name, personal style, and memories emerge. Eve appears to be suffering from ______ disorder
Dissociative Identity
Ned seeks therapy after having recurrent episodes of feeling “detached from himself” for several months, but
he has not lost his self-awareness or memory. He notes that he feels like a robot, disconnected from his movements and actions. He is most likely suffering from ______.
Depersonalization/derealization disorder
A team of investigators has found that persons suffering from depersonalization/derealization disorder show significant differences in _________ when different personalities are present.
PET scan activity
Which of the following perspectives claims that shaping may play a big role in the development of some cases
of dissociative identity disorder?
What is the name of the culture-bound syndrome that involves a period of increased agitation and violence?
A person who is suffering from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations, and who is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality, is likely suffering from _______.
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding schizophrenia?
It is a type of psychotic disorder
A patient in a psychiatric hospital exhibits disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations. This
person is probably suffering from ___________.
False beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness are known as ______.
Gigi, who has schizophrenia, believes that she was sent by God to one day rule the world. Her belief is an
example of a(n) ________.
The television talks to Heidi. It tells her the police are out to get her. Because Heidi has schizophrenia, she is
mostly experiencing a(n) ________
Shreen is diagnosed with schizophrenia. She believes that she is a powerful person who can save the world.
Shreen is experiencing __________.
Delusions of grandeur
Delusions of ________ are false beliefs held by a person who is convinced that others are trying to hurt them in
some way.
False sensory perceptions that often take the form of hearing voices are called ______.
Of the five known human sensory systems, which type of hallucination is the most common?
Nick is admitted to a mental institution because he hears voices talking to him that no one else can hear, and he sees demons attacking him, though no one else can see anything near him. Nick’s symptoms are known as ______.
Which of the following is a condition in which a person shows little or no emotion?
Flat Affect
A hospital patient was diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia because she was having both delusions and hallucinations. What type of symptoms are these?
What is the best way to describe the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
An excess or distortion of normal functions
Which pair consists of negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
Poor attention and flat affect
Sal has decreased levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in his frontal lobe areas. Which disorder might he be at risk of experiencing?
Which of the following statements might someone with a biological perspective make about schizophrenia?
It is caused by genetics, chemical influences, and brain structural defects.
Approximately ________ out of every 1,000 people worldwide will develop schizophrenia at some point
during their lives
According to family, twin, and adoption studies, a person is at greatest risk for developing schizophrenia
If he or she has an identical twin diagnosed with the disorder
Research suggests that a reduction in myelin coating neurons in the uncinate fasciculus and the cingulum
bundle, two important parts of the brain, is related to developing symptoms of __________.
People with ______ disorders have an excessively rigid, maladaptive pattern of behavior and ways of relating
to others
John has made a career of stealing older people’s retirement money by taking advantage of their trust and selling them phony retirement investments. John explains that he has done nothing wrong—if these people were not so greedy, they would not be so eager to invest in his phony schemes. In his mind, his victims got exactly what they deserved. John’s behavior and attitude are typical of someone with ______ personality disorder.
Antisocial, paranoid, and schizoid are all types of ________ disorders.
Which of the following people would be most likely to receive a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder?
Jared, who enjoys stealing cars and going for joy rides around his neighborhood
Marty is moody, manipulative, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others. He wants to have close relationships but is unable to do so because he is untrusting of others. Marty is suffering from ______ personality disorder
Kevin shows a pattern of instability in his relationships, self-image, and feelings. As such, he most likely has
________ personality disorder
Which of the following statements represents the cognitive-behavioral theorist’s view of personality disorders?
They are a type of learned behavior
Which of the following reflect behavioral aspects of test anxiety?
Procrastination, avoiding studying, or deficient study skills
(True/False) The process of cutting holes in the skull of a person with the symptoms of a mental disorder is a part of traditional exorcism
(True/False) Though his work was done over two thousand years ago, current medical research has found that Hippocrates’s theories regarding the relationship between the “four humors” and mental disturbance were correct.
(True/False) One clear sign of abnormality is when the behavior the person engages in creates a great deal of subjective
(True/False) The psychodynamic model views abnormal behavior as resulting from illogical thinking patterns.
(True/False) Behaviorists believe that abnormal behaviors are the result of the process of learning, including classical and operant conditioning
(True/False) The model of psychological abnormality that combines the influences of all of the other models in varying amounts is called the omnilogical model.
(True/False) The DSM-5 describes disorders in terms of symptoms and specific criteria that must be met in order for diagnosis to be made
(True/False) A phobia is a type of mood disorder
(True/False) It is only when panic attacks become so frequent that they affect a person’s ability to function in day-to-day living that the person is said to have a panic disorder.
(True/False) A repetitive ritualistic behavior that helps to reduce anxiety is called an obsession.
(True/False) When a person suffers from bipolar disorder, he or she experiences mood swings that can range from severe depression to manic episode
(True/False) Dissociative disorders involve a break in consciousness, memory, or a person’s sense of identity.
(True/False) Delusions are false sensory perceptions, such as hearing voices that do not really exist.
(True/False)Biological explanations of schizophrenia include genetics, chemical influences, and brain structural defects.
(True/False) A person diagnosed with a personality disorder has an excessively rigid, maladaptive pattern of behavior and ways of relating to others
Define the term maladaptive as it relates to understanding abnormal behavior.
The person finds it hard to adapt to the demands of day-to-day living
How does the biological model explain the cause of psychological disorders?
Caused by faulty neurotransmitter systems, genetic problems, brain damage and dysfunction, or some combination of those causes.
Define the term cultural relativity
The need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture withing which the family and social group exists.
What is the DSM-5?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Includes changes in organization of disorders, modifications in terminology used to describe disorders and their symptoms, and discusses the possibility of dimensional assessments for some disorders in future versions of the manual.
What are specific phobias?
An irrational fear of some object or specific situation, such as a fear of dogs, or a a fear of being in small, enclosed spaces
What are some ways in which a panic attack resembles a heart attack?
Racing heart beat, rapid breathing, a sensation of being “out of one’s body”, dulled hearing and vision, sweating, and dry mouth
What is the difference between acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder?
Acute stress disorder often occurs immediately after the traumatic event, while the symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder may not occur until 6 months or so later.
What are the symptoms of major depressive disorder?
Depressed for most of the day, take little or no pleasure in any activities, feel tired, have trouble sleeping or they sleep to much, experience changes in appetite and significant weight changes, experience excessive guilt or feelings of worthlessness, and have trouble concentrating.
What is the primary difference between bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder?
The individual with bulimia will eat and eat to excess, binging on huge amounts of food (3,500 calories) in a single binge, (50,000 calories) in a single day.
What are the characteristics of dissociative identity disorder?
Experience of two or more distinct personalities existing in one body. May be a “core” personality , who usually knows nothing about the other personalities and is the one who experiences “blackouts” or losses of memory and time.
What is a delusion of reference?
People believe that other people, television characters, and even books are specifically talking to them
What are the characteristics of antisocial personality disorder?
Habitually break the law, disobey rules, tell lies, and use other people without worrying about their rights or feelings. (against society”