What was the language of the church?
What did medieval scholars focus more on?
Religious beliefs and spirituality
What was Renaissance ideal?
A person with talents in many fields
What was an intellectual movement that occurred during the heart of the Italian Renaissance?
What did humanists study?
The classical culture of Greece and Rome. Focused on worldly subjects rather than religious issues.
What are the humanities?
Grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history
Who was Francesco Petrarch?
A Florentine humanist, poet, and scholar. Assembled a library of Greek/Roman manuscripts in monasteries & churches.
What did Italy’s location encourage?
What was Italy divided into?
Who was the Medici family?
Family of Florence who were among the richest merchants and bankers in Europe.
Of what ideas did Renaissance art reflect?
What is perspective?
Making distant objects smaller than those close to the viewer.
What did Renaissance painters use to make objects round? To reflect light?
Shading. Oil paints.
Who described architecture as a “social art”?
Who was Leonardo da Vinici? (1452-1519)
A multi-talented Renaissance painter
Who was Michelangelo? (1475-1564)
A sculptor, painter, architect, and poet. Painted murals for the Sistine Chapel ceiling and designed the dome of St. Peter’s Cathedral.
Who was Raphael? (1483-1520)
Painter known for portrayals of the Mother Mary and Jesus and for The School of Athens(imaginary gathering).
Who was Baldassare Castiglione?
Wrote The Book of Courtier. Describes manners, skills, learning, and virtues that a member of the court should have.
What did Niccolò Machiavelli do?
Wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain/maintain power
What did Johann Gutenberg do? (1455)
Printed the first complete edition of the bible.
Where did the northern Renaissance begin?
In the cities of Flanders. (France, Belgium, and the Netherlands)
Who were the Flemish painters?
Jan van Eyck (1400s), Pieter Bruegel (1500s), Peter Paul Rubens (1600s)
Who was Albrecht Dürer?
Pioneer in spreading Renaissance ideas to northern Europe.
What was engraving?
Etching a design on a metal plate with acid.
What was the vernacular?
The everyday language or ordinary people.
Who was Desiderius Erasmus?
Dutch priest and humanist who produced a new Greek edition of the bible.
Who was Sir Thomas More?
Humanist that wrote Utopia.
What is utopian?
Word to describe any ideal society.
Who was François Rabelais?
French humanist, monk, physician, Greek scholar, author; wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel.
Who was William Shakespeare?
English poet and playwright.
Who competed with Italian princes for political power in the late Middle Ages?
What were indulgences? Who granted them?
A lessening of time a soul would have to spend in purgatory. The church granted for good deeds, but by the late 1400s, sold them for money.
What did John Wycliffe do? (1300s)
Launched a attack against the church in England. Jan Hus, a follower, led a reform movement.
Who was Martin Luther?
A German monk and professor of theology who triggered a revolt in 1517.
Who was Johann Tetzel? What did he do?
A priest of Wittenberg, Germany, who offered indulgences to Christians who gave money to re-bulid the Cathedral of St. Peter. Claimed the purchase would assure entry into heaven.
Who excommunicated Luther in 1521?
Pope Leo X
Who summoned Luther to the diet at the city of Worms?
Charles V, and declared Luther an outlaw.
What is a diet?
An assembly of German princes.
What was the Peasants Revolt? (1524)
Rebels called for an end to serfdom and demanded other changes in their harsh lives.
What was the Peace of Augsburg? (1555)
Allowed each prince to decide which religion-Catholic or Lutheran-would be followed in his lands.
Who was John Calvin?
Reformer who published a book about his religious beliefs in 1536. Preached predestination. Set up theocracy in Geneva.
What is predestination?
The idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation.
What is a theocracy?
Government run by church leaders.
Who was John Knox and what did he do?
A Calvinist in Scotland that led a rebellion that overthrew the Catholic queen.
WHat did some Calvinists do to escape persecution @ home? (1600s)
Sail to the Americas.
What are sects?
Religious groups that had broken away from an established church.
Who were the Anabaptists?
Sect that rejected infant baptism and sought social change.
Whose work broke the Catholic Church?
King Henry VIII
Who was Mary Tudor?
Henry’s one surviving daughter
What did King Henry VIII make parliament do?
Pass a series of laws that took the English church from the pope’s control and into his rule.
Who did Henry VIII appoint archbishop?
Who did Henry marry and have Elizabeth with?
What Act did Parliament pass making Henry the only supreme head of the Church of England?
The Act of Supremacy
What is canonized?
Recognized as a saint, by the Catholic Church.
What humanist was canonized?
Sir Thomas More
What did royal officials investigate between 1536 and 1540?
Catholic convents and monasteries. Henry ordered them closed, claiming that they were centers of immortality.
Who inherited Henry’s throne when he died in 1547?
His only surviving son, Edward VI. Wanted to make England Protestant.
Who drew up the Protestant Book of Common Prayer?
Who became queen after Mary Tudor died?
What is a compromise?
Acceptable middle ground, between Protestant and Catholic practices.
What did the Church of England preserve and keep?
Catholic ritual and the hierarchy of bishops and archbishops.
Who led the Catholic Reformation?
Pope Paul III
What was the Council of Trent?
In 1545, the council of Trent reaffirmed the traditional Catholic views that Protestants had challenged.
Who was the order of Jesuits founded by?
Ignatius of Loyola, a Spanish knight.
What did Teresa of Avilia symbolize? What did she do?
Symbolized renewal. She established her own order of nuns and reorganized/reformed Spanish convents and monasteries.
By 1600, what did the majority of Europeans remain?
When did the persecution of witches decline?
When the wars of religion came to an end.
Where did Venice order Jews to live in 1516, because they would not convert?
A separate quarter of the city called the ghetto.
What did Nicolaus Copernicus publish?
The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.
What is heliocentric?
Who was Tyco Brahe?
A Danish astronomer that proved Copernicus’ heliocentric model of the universe.
Who was Johannes Kepler?
German astronomer and mathematician that calculated the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun.
What did Galileo Galilei do?
He assembled an astronomical telescope. His observations contradicted ancient views about the world. Church condemned him.
Who were Francis Bacon and Descartes?
Devoted themselves to understanding how truth is determined.
What is scientific method?
A step-by-step process of discovery.
What is a hypothesis?
Reasoning used to propose a logical or possible explanation
What did Andreas Vesalius publish in 1543?
On the Structure of the Human Body, the first accurate and detailed study of human anatomy.
Who was Ambroise Paré and what did he develop?
A French physician; a new/more effective ointment for preventing infection, surgical techniques and instruments, and artificial limbs.
What is alchemy now called?
Who was Robert Boyle and what did he do?
An English chemist who refined the alchemists’ view of chemicals as basic building blocks.
Who was Issac Newton and what did he do?
An English student who formed a theory to why the planets moved. He showed that a single force, called gravity, keeps the planets in their orbits around the sun.
What is calculus?
A branch of mathematics partially developed by Newton and used to explain his laws.