PLEASE DONT COPY WORD FROM WORD.!!!!!! Chapter 13: The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam Social: 1) Japan * Emperor -> aristocracy -> nobles/ warriors -> local leaders-> peasants -> farmers * Male and female barriers * Females can’t rule or get into political businesses no matter how high up you are. * Determing rank solely by birth * Men and women in aristocratic classes are mandatory to have polite behaviors * Social status was everything and love affairs were anxiety * Later on, women lost almost all of their previous rights * Inheritance was only passed down to the oldest son Women were then treated like trash and men view them as defenseless * Women were taught to slay themselves rather than dishonor the family line by getting raped * All classes of Japanese women lost role of celebrant in religious ceremonies and replaced in theatrical performances by men. 2) Korea * Emperor -> government -> nobles/local leaders -> peasants -> slaves * Born due to its original classes 3. Vietnam * Women had more freedoms * Women wore long skirts to black pants * Women had more influences in both family and in societies * Women were dominant force in large urban markets and trading systems Political: ) Japan * Empress Koken; married the Buddhist monk and he became king * Emperor Kammu ; 794 * Heian (Kyoto) ; a new capital city established by emperor Kammu; buddists build monasteries * Later Buddhist monks were abandoned out of the aristocratic and aristocrats almost fully took over in the central government * Japanese monarchy -> Chinese style emperor * Created genuine bureaucracy and peasant conscript armies * Local leaders were to organize militia forces and later control the imperial household * Fujiwara was the aristocratic family in 9th century Taira; competed with Minamoto families and defeated the Gempei Wars * Minamoto; competed with the Taira family * Gempei Wars; waged for five years between the Taira and the Minamoto’s * Ashikaga Takuaji * Ashikaga Shogunate * Hojo 2) Korea * Koguryo – tribal people of northern Korea * Silla is the independent Korean kingdom southeast * Paekche- defeated by the Silla’s * Resulted in Sinification * Tries to put Chinese style bureaucracy * Paid tribute to China and created peace to add protection. * Yi dynasty 3) Vietnam Confucian bureaucracy established and dominated in aristocracy * Chinese controlled for several centuries * Hanoi – capital city * Nguyen – rival Vietnamese dynasty * Trinh- dynasty that ruled north Vietnam Interactions: 1) Japan * It as Trades with China * Borrow ideologies from China and put into their own culture * Dominated emperor and capital as a whole * Buddhist monks became powerful and became the heads of demanding the monastic orders. * Buddhism from China * Chinese political dominance * Surrounded by the pacific ocean, islands, lots of mountains 2) Korea Took ideas from china culturally and politically * Korean scholars traveled to China and few went for the Buddhist faith in India * Similar to what Japan had done * Borrowed paper productions, printings, paintings and arts, written language and agricultures * Located in the far east of Asian, right next to China surrounds by the yellow sea mostly 3) Vietnam * Right down below China * Heavily influenced by China just like Japan and Korea. * Confucian ideologies and Buddhism influences too * Ideas from Chinese agriculture technologies Culture: 1) Japan Borrowed ideas from China… such as writings, characters, everyday aspects, language.. etc * Japanese tried to master Confucian’s ways, worship Chinese style temples * Admired Buddhism’s arts * Worshipped “Kami”; nature spirits * Zen Buddhism, Confucianism, and Shinto were major beliefs * The way normal aristocratic families live in ~Buildings were of unpainted wood, sliding panels, matted floors, and wooden walkways between every room people lived in. ~Writing verse is the most valued art in courts. ~Poems were written on painted fans and scented papers. Lady Murasaki; one of the most famous female poet * “Tale of Genji, The” written by Lady Murasaki * Played flutes and stringed instruments * Zen Buddhism stressed on simplicity and discipline that played a critical role 2) Korea * Studied Chinese schools and enrolled in Confucian studies * Made their own language and writing systems by taking ideas of Chinese literatures * Artisan learned to hold metal type in place * Used honey as glue * Practiced mainly Confucianism and Buddhism * Law codes * Arts from China 3) Vietnam * Strong tradition of village autonomy * Symbolizations of bamboo hedges Confucianism * Buddhism * Economic: 1) Japan * New tool * Greater tools to draft animals * New crops…soybeans * Produce items like silk, hemp, paper, dyes, and vegetable oils… etc * Military elites and intermediaries traded between Japan and overseas such as China 2) Korea * Sell goods to Chinese markets * Purchased Chinese scrolls and art works * Tribute systems with China * Tribute became major channel of trade and intercultural exchanges with China and other neighbors 3) Vietnam * Produce lots of rice * Trade with lots of other areas surrounded * Pay tributes to China for protection
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