Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders

hallucinations
perceptions experienced in the absence of external stimuli
delusions
fixed but patently false beliefs, such as believing that one thing is being hounded by demons
culture-bound syndrome
psychological disorders found in only one or a few cultures
dhat syndrome
a culture-bound syndrome found in India in which men develop intense fears about losing semen
medical model
a framework for understanding abnormal behavior patterns as symptoms of underlying physical disorders and diseases
biopsychosocial model
an integrative model for explaining abnormal behavior patterns in terms of the interactions of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
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diathesis-stress models
type of biopsychosocial model that relates the development of disorders to the combination of a diathesis, or predisposition, usually genetic in origin, and exposure to stressful events or life circumstances
diathesis
a vulnerability or predisposition to developing a disorder
psychological disorders
abnormal behavior patterns characterized by disturbances in behavior, thinking, perceptions, or emotions that are associated with a significant personal distress or impaired functioning
anxiety disorders
a class of psychological disorders characterized by excessive or inappropriate anxiety reactions
phobias
excessive fears of particular objects or situations
social phobia
excessive fear of social situations
specific phobia
phobic reactions involving specific situations or objects
acrophobia
excessive fear of heights
claustrophobia
excessive fear of enclosed spaces
agoraphobia
irrational fear of being in public places
panic disorder
repeated episodes of sheer terror called panic attacks
generalized anxiety disorder
persistent and generalized anxiety and worry
OCD
repeated occurence of obsessions and/or compulsions
anxiety sensitivity
fear of fear
dissociative disorders
class of psychological disorders involving changes in consciousness, memory, or self identity
somataform disorders
involves physical ailments or complaints that cannot be explained by organic causes
dissociative identity disorder
appearance of multiple personalities in the same individual
conversion disorder
somataform disorder characterized by a change or loss of physical function that cannot be explained by medical causes
hypochondriasis
excessive concern that ones physical complaints are signs of underlying serious illness
secondary gain
reward value of having a psychological or physical symptom
mood disorders
class of psychological disorders involving disturbances in mood states, such as major depression and bipolar disorder
major depressive disorder
most common type of depressive disorder
seasonal affective disorder
recurring pattern of winter depression followed by elevations of mood in spring and summer
dysthymic disorder
mild but chronic depression
bipolar disorder
mood swings from extreme elation to severe depression
manic episodes
periods of mania, usually elevated mood and extreme restlessness
cyclothymic disorder
chronic patter of relatively mild mood swings
learned helplessness model
view that depression results from the perception of a lack of control over ones fate
attributional style
persons characteristic way of explaining outcomes of events in his or her life
depressive attributional style
a charactawistic way of explaining negative events of internal, stable, and global causes
disinhibition effect
removal of normal restraints or inhibitions that serve to keep impulsive behavior in check
schizophrenia
disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions, and behavior
psychotic disorder
characterized by a “break” with reality
thought disorder
breakdown in the logical structure of thought and speech
positive symptoms
symptoms of schizophrenia involving behavioral excesses such as hallucinations and delusions
negative symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.
disorganized type
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by confused behavior and disorganized delusions, among other features
catatonic type
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by bizarre movements, postures, or grimaces
waxy flexibility
feature of catatonic schizophrenia in which people rigidly maintain the body position or posture in which they are placed by others
paranoid type
most common subtype of schizophrenia, characterized by the appearance of delusional thinking accompanied by frequent auditory hallucinations
personality disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
narcissistic personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by a grandiose sense of self
paranoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others
schizoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by social aloofness and limited range of emotional expression
borderline personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by amorality and lack of affect
paranoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others
schizoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by social aloofness and limited range of emotional expression
schizotypal personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by detachment from, and great discomfort in, social relationships; odd perceptions, thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by amorality and lack of affect
borderline personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures
histrionic personality disorder
excessive emotionality, need for attention
narcissistic personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by a grandiose sense of self
avoidant personality disorder
social inhibitions, feelings of inadequacy
dependent personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by helplessness; excessive need to be taken care of; submissive and clinging behavior; difficulty in making decisions
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
excessive needs for orderliness and attention to detail
brain abnormalities
common in schizophrenic patients
prefrontal cortex and limbic systems
areas most affected by schizophrenia
antipsychotic drugs
used to quell hallucinations and delusions
causes of schizophrenia
genetic factors, biochemical imbalances, brain abnormalities, psychosocial influences and stress
Van Gogh
artist that suffered from terrible bouts of depression that led to his eventual suicide
suicide
purposefully taking ones own life
causes of mood disorders
psychological factors, biological factors
dissociative amnesia
loss of memory for info about themselves or their life experiences
causes of anxiety disorders
biological factors, psychological factors
types of anxiety disorders
phobias, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, OCD
medical model
biological underpinnings of abnormal behavior
psychodynamic model
unconscious conflicts and motives underlying abnormal behavior; freud
behavioral model
learning experience that shaped development of abnormal behavior
humanistic model
roadblocks that hinder self-awareness and self-acceptance
cognitive model
faulty thinking underlying abnormal behavior
sociocultural model
development of abnormal behavior and relationships between abnormal behavior and ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic level
biopsychosocial model
biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
clinical disorders
impair functioning or cause distress
personality disorders
excessively rigid, enduring, and maladaptive ways of relating to others
metal retardation
generalized delay or impairment in intellectual and adaptive skills or abilities
general medical conditions
illnesses and other medical conditions that are important of treatment to person’s psychological disorder
psychosocial and environmental problems
problems in person’s social or physical environment that may effect diagnosis, treatment, or outcome of a disorder
global assessment of functioning
overall judgment of a persons level of functioning
multiaxial DSM system
chart showing type of disorder and brief descriptions and examples
humanistic model
roadblocks that hinder self-awareness and self-acceptance
suicide
found in many life stages, is one of the leading causes of death in adolescents
mental retardation
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound
acrophobia
a morbid fear of great heights
DSM-IV-TR
fourth text-revised edition of the book of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders