– Three of his stages cover the years after adolescence.
– Later in his life, Erikson stressed that stages and ages do not occur in lockstep.
Movement occurs when people have satisfied their needs at one level and are ready for the next step.
In his later years, Maslow reassessed his final level, self-actualization.
He suggested another level after that, called self-transcendence.
Set the stages of life and the behaviors considered appropriate to each of them
Some ages set by the social clock are enacted into law, in the form of minimal ages for driving, drinking, voting, getting married, signing a mortgage, and being entitled to retirement benefits
Middle age, if it exists, can begin at age 35 or 50.
Time of anxiety and radical change as age 40 approaches
Men, in particular, were said to leave their wives, buy red sports cars, and quit their jobs because of midlife panic.
Of these four, genes are probably the most influential, according to longitudinal studies.
Since genes do not change from conception through death, every study finds substantial continuity in personality.
– Conscientiousness: Organized, deliberate, conforming, self-disciplined
– Extroversion: Outgoing, assertive, active
– Agreeableness: Kind, helpful, easygoing, generous
– Neuroticism: Anxious, moody, self-punishing, critical
Adults select vocations, mates, and neighborhoods, and they settle into chosen routines and surroundings.
Ages 30 to 50 are marked by more stability of personality than are other periods of life.
These sex differences may be innate, perhaps related to hormones.
Adults meet their need for social connection through their relationships with relatives, friends, coworkers, and romantic partners.
Often are able to provide practical help and useful advice when serious problems—death of a family member, personal illness, loss of a job—arise
Physical separation does not necessarily weaken family ties.
Over the years of adulthood, parents and adult children typically increase in closeness, forgiveness, and pride as both generations gain maturity.
Adult siblings help one another cope with children, marriage, and elderly relatives.
Sibling bonds are particularly likely to develop during adulthood among children who grew up in large families with major stressors like extreme poverty or a bitter divorce.
Some adults wisely keep their distance from their blood relatives.
They may instead become fictive kin in another family, that is, someone who is accepted and treated like a family member.
Partners help meet their needs for intimacy as well as to raise children, share resources, and provide care when needed.
Less than 15% of U.S. residents marry before age 25, but by age 40, 85% have married.
Married people are a little happier, healthier, and richer than never-married ones—but not by much.
Most long-married people stay together because they love and trust each other, not simply because they are stuck.
Very distressed marriages = happier after divorce; distant marriages =less happy than they thought they would be.
Divorce reduces income, severs friendships, and weakens family ties.
Impacts income, family welfare, and self esteem
Involves almost one out of two marriages in the U.S.
Adults satisfy their need to be generative in many ways, including creativity, caregiving, and employment.
Every parent is tested and transformed by the dynamic experience of raising children.
Many adopted or foster children remain attached to their birth parents, part of the normal human affection for familiar caregivers.
If children are not attached to anyone (as can happen when they spend years in an institution), they are mistrustful of all adults and fearful of becoming too dependent.
This helps the child but hinders the stepparents.
Young stepchildren often get hurt, sick, lost, or disruptive, and teenage stepchildren may get pregnant, drunk, or arrested.
Generativity, with patient, authoritative parenting, is needed.
Strong bonds can develop, especially when the children are adopted as infants.
During adolescence, these bonds may stretch and loosen as some adoptive children become intensely rebellious.
Siblings’ relationships can be strained if a parent becomes frail and needs care.
One sibling usually becomes the chief caregiver.
Some adults do feel pressured by these obligations, but most are not burdened by them.
Unemployment is associated with higher rates of child abuse, alcoholism, depression, and many other social problems.
Even though average income has doubled, overall happiness within the U.S. has not risen in the past 50 years.
Express their creative energy
Aid and advise coworkers, as a mentor or friend
Support the education and health of their families
Contribute to the community by providing goods or services
Not everyone has the same expectations, needs, and desires.
Between ages 25 and 42, the average worker in the United States has five separate employers.
Older workers find job changes particularly difficult.