chapter 13 b

chief of state
This means he is the ceremonial head of the government of the United States, the symbol of all the people of the nation.
chief executive
The Constitution vests the President with the executive power of the United States, making him or her the nation’s
chief administrator
the president is the director, of the United States government.
chief diplomat
the President is the main architect of American foreign policy and chief spokesperson to the rest of the world.
commander in chief
giving him or her complete control of the nation’s armed forces.
chief legislator
the main architect of the nation’s public policies.
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chief of party
the acknowledged leader of the political party that controls the executive branch.
chief citizen
The President is expected to be “the representative of all the people.”
born citizen, atleast 35, lived in us for 14 years
Article II, Section 1, Clause 5, of the Constitution says that the President must:
The 22nd Amendment
Until 1951, the Constitution placed no limit on the number of terms a President might serve.
Traditionally, Presidents limited the number of terms served to two. This tradition was broken by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940 when he ran for and won a third term in office. He then went on to be elected to a fourth term in 1944.
*** placed limits on presidential terms. A President now may not be elected more than twice or only once if they became President due to succession.
determines the President’s salary, and this salary cannot be changed during a presidential term.
monetary benefits
The President’s pay was first set at $25,000 a year. Currently, the President is paid $400,000 a year.
Congress has also approved an expense allowance for the President, which is currently $50,000 a year.
besides *******, the President gets to live in the 132-room mansion that we call the White House.
The President is also granted other benefits, including a large suite of offices, a staff, the use of Air Force One, and many other fringe benefits.
Presidential succession
* is the plan by which a presidential vacancy is filled.
The 25th Amendment
ratified in 1967, made it clear that the Vice President will become President if the President is removed from office.

sections 3 and 4 of this provide procedures to follow when the president is disabled

The Presidential Succession Act of 1947
set the order of succession following the Vice President.
The Vice President is to become acting President if
(1) the President informs Congress, in writing, “that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office,” or
(2) the Vice President and a majority of the members of the Cabinet inform Congress, in writing, that the President is thus incapacitated.
* only gives the Vice President two duties besides becoming President if the President is removed from office:
1) to preside over the Senate, and
2) to help decide the question of presidential disability.
diplomatic and political chores
If the office of Vice President becomes vacant, the President nominates a new Vice President subject to the approval of Congress.
Today, the Vice President often performs * for the President.
speaker of house, president pro tempore of the senate, secretary of state, secretary of treasury, secretary of defense
if president and vice president are unable to lead country, next 5 places to preside are
presidential electors.
According to the Constitution, the President and Vice President are chosen by a special body of
electoral votes
Originally, the presidential electors each cast two * , each for a different candidate. The candidate with the most votes would become President, and the candidate with the second highest total would become Vice President.
electoral college
is the group of people (electors) chosen from each State and the District of Columbia that formally selects the President and Vice President. With the rise of political parties in 1796, flaws began to be seen in the system.
12th amendment
was added to the Constitution in 1804 following the election of 1800.

The major change in the electoral college made by the amendment was that each elector would distinctly cast one electoral vote for President and one for Vice President.

party national committees
The convention system has been mainly built by the two major parties in American politics.
* arrange the time and place for their party’s nominating convention.
apportionment and selection of delegates
Parties apportion the number of delegates each State will receive based on electoral votes and other factors.
Delegates are selected through both presidential primaries and the caucus-convention process.
presidential primary
depending on the state this is an election which a party’s voters
(1) choose some or all of a State’s party organization’s delegates to their party’s national convention, and/or
(2) express a preference among various contenders for their party’s presidential nomination.
proportional representation rule
rule to select delegates. In this system, a proportion of a State’s delegates are chosen to match voter preferences in the primary.
preference primaries
More than half of the States hold where voters choose their preference for a candidate. Delegates are selected later to match voter preferences.
caucuses and conventions
In those States that do not hold presidential primaries, delegates to the national conventions are chosen in a system of
local caucuses
The party’s voters meet in * where they choose delegates to a local or district convention, where delegates to the State convention are picked.
at state level and district conventions
delegates to the national convention are chosen.
national convention
the meeting at which delegates vote to pick their presidential and vice-presidential candidates
Party conventions
(1) to officially name the party’s presidential and vice-presidential candidates,

(2) to bring the various factions and the leading personalities in the party together in one place for a common purpose, and

(3) to adopt the party’s platform—its formal statement of basic principles, stands on major policy matters, and objectives for the campaign and beyond.

popular vote
Voters do not vote directly for the President. Instead, they vote for electors in the electoral college.

All States, except two (Maine and Nebraska), select electors based on the winner of the * in that state

* then meet in the State capitals on the Monday after the second Wednesday in December and cast their votes for President and Vice President.
president of the Senate
On January 6, the electoral votes cast are counted by the * and the President and Vice President are formally elected.
house of rep
If no candidate wins a majority of electoral votes (270), the election is thrown into the
major defects in the electoral college:
(1) It is possible to win the popular vote in the presidential election, but lose the electoral college vote. This has happened four times in U.S. history (1824, 1876, 1888, and 2000).

(2) Nothing in the Constitution, nor in any federal statute, requires the electors to vote for the candidate favored by the popular vote in their State.

(3) If no candidate gains a majority in the electoral college, the election is thrown into the House, a situation that has happened twice (1800 and 1824). In this process, each State is given one vote, meaning that States with smaller populations wield the same power as those with larger populations.

district plan
electors would be chosen the same way members of Congress are selected: each congressional district would select one elector (just as they select representatives), and two electors would be selected based on the overall popular vote in a State (just as senators are selected).
proportional plan
suggests that each candidate would receive the same share of a State’s electoral vote as he or she received in the State’s popular vote.
direct popular election
At the polls, voters would vote directly for the President and Vice President instead of electors.
national bonus plan
would automatically offer the winner of the popular vote 102 electoral votes in addition to the other electoral votes he or she might gain.
electoral college
It is a known process. Each of the proposed, but untried, reforms may very well have defects that could not be known until they appeared in practice.

In most election years, the * defines the winner of the presidential election quickly and certainly.