Chapter 13 Avoiding Substance use, abuse and addiction

addiction
persistent, compulsive dependence on a behavior or substance, despite ongoing negative consequences
what is the most widely used and abused recreational drug in our society ?
alcohol
heavy episodic (binge) drinking
drinking for the express purpose of becoming intoxicated, five drinks or more at one sitting for me, 4 drinks or more at one sitting for women
pre gamining
a form of binge drinking during which people gather to drink heavily before going to a bar, nightclub, or sporting event
ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
an addictive drug produced by fermentation and found in many beverages
the liver can metabolize how much of alcohol per hour?
about one ounce
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blood alcohol concentration (BAC)
the ratio of alcohol to blood volume, used as a measure of intoxication
proof
a measure of the percentage of alcohol in a beverage (drinks strength)
beers has____ percentage of alcohol
2-5
wine has ___ percentage of alcohol
12
several factors that influence how quickly your body absorbs alcohol
alcohol concentration in your drink, amount of alcohol you consume, the amount of food in your stomach, your metabolism, your weight and body mass index and your mood
alcohol hepatitis
a condition resulting from prolonged use of alcohol in which the liver is inflamed
cirrhosis
the last stage of liver disease associated with chronic heavy use of alcohol, during which liver cells dir and damage becomes permanent
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
a disorder that may affect the fetus when the mother consumes alcohol during pregnancy, among its effects are mental retardation, small head, tremors, and physical abnormalities
alcohol abuse
use of alcohol that interferes with work, school, or personal relationships or that entails violations of the law
alcoholism (alcohol dependence)
a condition in which personal and health problems related to alcohol use are sever and stopping alcohol use results in withdrawal symptoms
nicotine
the primary stimulant chemical in tobacco products
tabacco smoke contains how many chemical compounds?
4000
More than how many of the actual compounds are suspected to cause cancer?
60
The most dangerous toxic gas is
carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide
a gas found in cigarette smoke that binds at oxygen receptors sites in the blood (most dangerous)
Main types of tabacco use is
cigarettes, cigars, bidis, hookahs, smokeless tobacco
snugg
a fine ground form of tobacco that can be chewed or placed against the gums
If is estimated that 75 percent of the more than 30000 cases of oral cancer diagnosed in the US each year result from
smokeless tobacco or cigarette use
nicotine poisoning
symptoms often experienced by beginning smokers, including dizziness, diarrhea, light hotheadedness, rapid and erratic pulse, clammy skin, nausea, and vomiting
emphysema
a chronic lung disease in which the tiny air sacs in the lungs are destroyed, making breathing difficult
environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke)
smoke from tobacco products, divided into 2 categories (mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke)
mainstream smoke
smoke emitted from a smoker’s mouth
sidestream smoke
smoke emitted from the burning end of a cigarette
People who breathe smoke from someone else’s smoking product are said to be
involuntary or passive smokers
once addicted to nicotine…
9 out of 10 people who try to stop smoking fail
drug misuse
use of a drug for a purpose for which it was not intended
drug abuse
excessive use of a drug
what is the most popular illicit drug used by college students and the 3rd most popular drug after alcohol and tobacco?
marijuana
Marijuana
chopped leaves and flowers of a cannabis plant, a psychoactive stimulant
what causes the high that marijuana users experience?
tetrahydrocannobinol THC
designer (Club) drugs
synthetic version of existing illicit drugs, includes Ecstasy, Rohyphon, (aka date rate), GHB (aka date rape), and special k
Ketamine (special K)
inhibits the relay of sensory input, and the brain fills the resulting void with visions, dreams, memories, and intense sensory distortion that can mimic schizophrenia
stimulants
an agent, especially a chemical one, that temporarily arouses or accelerates physiological activity (cocaine, methamphetamine, ritalin, adderall, caffeine,)
Methamphetamine
a potent, long acting, addictive drug that strongly activates the brain’s reward center by producing a sense of euphoria
Opiates
a class of drugs derived from the parent drug opium, characterized by the ability to relieve pain, induce drowsiness, and cause euphoria
Opiates include?
opium, heroin, morphine, codeine, and synthetic opiates vicodin, Oxycontin, and Percocet
Out of all Opiates, which has the greatest notoriety as being addictive?
Heroin
Hallucinogenic (Psychedelic)
refers to substances capable of creating auditory or visual distortions and heightened states (ed LSD and PCP)
Inhalants
products that are sniffed or inhaled in order to produce a high, they contain vapor producing chemicals that, when sniffed, can cause dizziness, lack of coordination, hallucination, and euphoria
Anabolic Steroids
artificial forms of the hormone testosterone that promote muscle growth and strength
relapse
resumption of behavior that one is attempting to cease.
Oos phenomenon
is how easily and often quickly the brain adapts to habit forming durgs so use becomes compulsive and uncontrollable