Chapter 13, 15, and 16

What type of psychology views the unconscious parts of the self?
What is another name for Freudian psychology?
What type of psychology views the self-actualizing person?
What is an individual’s characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors?
What type of personality theories focus on the inner forces that interact to make us who we are?
What is another word for the psychodynamic theory?
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What is an interplay between conscious and unconscious processes?
Sigmund Freud
Who was the Vienna psychologist who found out what mental processes operate in the unconscious and came up with the theory of psychoanalysis?
What does it mean to be without awareness?
What is Freud’s therapeutic technique?
Free Association
What Freudian technique encourages the patients to speak whatever comes to their mind?
What is our rational self that resolves tension between our id?
What is based in biological drives?
What is driven by society’s rules and constraints?
What type of psychology is the ego, id, and superego part of?
What is a reservoir of thoughts, wishes, feelings, memories, that are hidden from awareness because they feel unacceptable to Freud?
Erogenous zones
What does the id focus on?
Erogenous zone
What is sensitive areas of the body?
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital
What are the five stages on Freud’s theory of psychosexual stage?
Which of Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages was the stage where the pleasure centers on the mouth- sucking, biting, and chewing?
Which of Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages in which the pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control?
Which of Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages is where the pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with demands for control?
Which of Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages is the one where it is a phase of dormant sexual feelings?
Which of Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages in which it is the maturation of sexual interests?
Boys see their fathers as a rival because they love their mother
What is Freud’s “Oedipus Complex?”
True of False: Freud believed that we are anxious about our unacceptable wishes and impulses, and we repress this anxiety?
What is retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixed?
Reaction Formation
What is switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites?
What is disguising one’s own threatening impulses by attributing them to others?
What is offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one’s actions?
What is shiftinf sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object of person?
What is refusing to believe or even percieve painful realities?
Regression, reactions formation, projection, rationalization, displacement, and denial
What are the six defense mechanisms against anxiety?
Adler, Horney, and Jung
Who are some psychodynamic theorists who agreed with Freud’s ideas?
Adler and Horney
Which psychodynamic theorists believed that anxiety and personality are a function of social, not sexual tensions in childhood?
Which psychodynamic theorists believed that we have a collective unconscious, containing images from out species’ experiences, not just personal repressed memories and wishes?
Carl Jung
What psychodynamic theorist highlighted universal themes in the unconscious as a source of creativity and insight; found opportunities for personal growth by finding meaning in moments of coincidence?
Alfread Adler
Which psychodynamic theorist focused on the fight against feelings of inferiority as a theme at the core of personality, although he may have been projecting from his own experience?
Karen Horney
Who criticized the Freudian portrayal of women as weak and subordinate to men; she highlighted the need to feel secure in relationships?
Protective tests
What is a structured, systematic exposure to a standardized set of ambiguous prompts, designed to reveal inner dynamics?
Low validity and low reliability
What are some problems with protective tests?
What type of psychology is the projective tests part of?
Unfalsifiability, hindsight bias, biased observations, and unrepresentative sampling
What are four problems in Freud’s scientific method?
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rodgers
Who were the two humanistic theories?
Dehumanizing ideas in behaviorism and dysfunctional view of people in psychodynamic thought
What were the two things that psychologists began to reject?
The Humanistic Perspective
What was Maslow and Rodger’s “third force” in psychology?
True or False: Maslow and Rodgers studied unhealthy people?
What is focusing on the conditions that support healthy personal growth?
What is fulfilling one’s potential?
Abraham Maslow
Who came up with the Hierarchy of Needs?
Genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
What is the 3 conditions that facilitate growth to Rodgers?
Unconditional Positive Regard
What is acceptance also known as?
What is our sense of our nature and identity?
True or false: People are happiest with a self-concept that matches their ideal self
False (other way around, humanists see evil as a social phenomenon, not an individual trait)
True or false: Humanists see evil as an individual trait, not a social phenomenon
True or false: Do humanists think that the pursuit of self-concept and self-actualization encouraged self-centerdness
What is an enduring quality that makes a person tend to act a certain way?
Gordon Allport
Who decided that Freud overvalued unconscious motives and undervalued our real, observable personality styles/traits?
Myers and Briggs
Who wanted to study individual behaviors and statements to find how people differed in personality: having different traits?
A questionnaire categorizing people by traits
What is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator?
Factor Analysis
What is identifying factors that tend to cluster together?
Hans and Sybil Eysenck
Who came up with factor analysis?
Unstable, introverted, stable, and extraverted
What are the four dimensions in factor analysis?
Personality Inventory
What is questionnaire assessing many personality traits, by asking which behaviors and responses the person would chose?
Empirically Derived Test
What are all test items that have been selected because they predictably match the qualities being assessed in questionnaires?
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
What was designed to identify people with personality difficulties; it consists of true and false questions and these items were selected because they correlated with various traits, emotions, and attitudes?
Who came up with the “Big Five” Personality Factors?
Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness, and Extraversion
What are the “Big Five Personality Factors” ?
What is self-discipline, careful pursuit of delayed goals?
What is helpful, trusting, friendliness?
What is anxiety, insecurity, emotional instability?
What is flexibilitiy, nonconformity, variety?
What is drawing energy from others, sociability?
True or false: We change less and become more consistent over time.
Albert Bandura
Who believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and their social context, involving how we think about ourselves and our situations?
What is a back and forth influence, with no primary cause?
Internal personal factors, behavior, and environmental factors
What reciprocal’s influence our personality?
Locus of control
What is our perception of where the seat of power over our lives is located?
Internal locus of control
What is the need to feel that we are in charge of ourselves and our circumstances called?
External locus of control
What is it called to picture that a force outside of ourselves controls our fate?
True or false: With practice, we can’t improve our self-control?
Learned Helpessness
What is declining to help oneself after repeated attempts to do so have failed?
Personal Control
What is it called when people are given too many choices that they thrive?
Martin Seligman
Who did the experiment in which a dog was given no chance of escape from repeated shocks?
Prediction, focus of attention, attribution of intent, valuation, and potential for change
What are the 5 ways that someone can be optimistic or pessimistic?
Martin Seligman
Who developed Positive Psychology?
Positive Psychology
What is the scientific study of optimal human functioning?
Emotions, Characters, and Groups/Cultures
What are the 3 pillars of Positive Psychology?
What is the core of personality, the organizer, and reservoir of our thoughts, feelings, actions, choices, and attitudes?
The Spotlight Effect
What is assuming that people are have attention focused on you when they actually may not be noticing you?
Students wore a Barry Manilow shirt to school and the students thought people were looking at them, but they actually weren’t
What was the Spotlight Effect experiment?
What is self-absorption, self-gratification, inflated but fragile self-worth called?
Psychological Disorders
What are patterns of thoughts, feelings, or actions that are deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional?
What refers to a state of mental/behavioral ill health?
What refers to finding a collection of symptoms that tend to go together, and not just seeing a single symptom?
What does differing from the normal mean?
Generalized Anxiety Disorders, Panic Disorders, Phobias, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
What are the 5 types of anxiety disorders?
Worrying and free-floating anxiety with no attachment to any subject; interferes with concentration
What are emotional-cognitive symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder?
Autonomic arousal (Trembling, sweating, fidgeting, agitation) and sleep distruption
What are physical symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder?
Panic Attack
What is many minutes of intense dread or terror; chest pains, choking, numbness, or other frightening physical sensations (like a heart attack) and the feeling of a need to escape?
Panic Disorder
What refers to repeated and unexpected panic attacks, as well as a fear of the next attack, and a change in behavior to avoid panic attacks?
Specific Phobia
What is more than just a strong fear or dislike; diagnosed when there is an uncontrollable, irrational, intense desire to avoid the some object or situation?
What is the avoidance of situations in which one will fear having a panic attack, especially a situation in which it is difficult to get help, and from which it is difficult to escape?
Social Phobia
What refers to an intense fear of being watched and judged by others. It is visible as a fear of public appearances in which embarrassment or humiliation is possible, such as public speaking, eating, or performing?
What are intense, unwanted worries, ideas, and images that repeatedly pop up in the mind?
What is a repeatedly strong feeling of “needing” to carry out an action, even though it doesn’t feel like it makes sense?
What is called when you are deeply frustrated with no being able to control the behaviors?
What is it called when the time and mental energy spent on these thoughts and behaviors interfere with everyday life?
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
What is repeated intrusive recall of traumatic memories, nightmares and other re-experiencing, social withdrawal or phobic avoidance, jumpy anxiety of hyper vigilance, insomnia or sleep problems symptoms of?
Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder
What are 2 types of mood disorders?
Major Depressive Disorder
What disorder are these symptoms of: Depressed mood mostly of the day, markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities, significant increase or decrease in appetite or weight, insomnia, sleeping too much, or disrupted sleep, lethargy, or physical agitation, fatigue of loss of energy nearly every day, worthlessness, or excessive/inappropriate guilt, daily problems in thinking, concentrating, and/or making decisions, and recurring thoughts of death and suicide?
Seasonal Affective Disorder
What involves a recurring seasonal pattern of depression, usually during winter’s short, dark, cold days?
What refers to a period of hyper-elevated mood that is euphoric, giddy, easily irritated, hyperactive, impulsive, overly optimistic, and even grandiose?
Bipolar Disorder
What was once “manic-depressive disorder”?
Depressed and mania
What are the two moods that deal with bipolar disorder?
Adjust neurotransmitters with medication, increase serotonin levels with exercise, reduce brain inflammation with a healthy diet, and prevent excessive alcohol use
How can you reduce depression?
What is it called when the mind is split from reality; a split from one’s own thoughts so that they appear as hallucinations?
What refers to a mental split from reality and rationality?
What disorder has these symptoms: Disorganized and/ or delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and diminished and inappropriate emotions
Presence of problematic behaviors
What are positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
Absence of healthy behaviors
What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
Disorganized speech
In Schizophrenia, what is “word salad” of loosely associated phrases?
In Schizophrenia, what is often bizarre and not just mistaken; most common are delusions of grandeur and of persecution
Problems with selective attention
In Schizophrenia, what is difficulty filtering thoughts and choosing which thoughts to believe and to say out loud?
Flat Affect
What is a facial/body expression is ‘flat” with no visible emotional content?
What is sitting motionless and unresponsive for hours?
What refers to a separation of conscious awareness from thoughts, memory, bodily, sensations, feelings, or even from identity?
Dissociative Disorder
What refers to dysfunction and distress caused by chronic and severe disociation
Dissociative Amnesia
What is a loss of memory with no known physical cause; inability to recall selected memories or any memories?
Dissociative Fugue
What is a state; wandering away from one’s life, memory, and identity, with no memory of these?
Dissociative Identity Disorder
What is development of separate personalities?
Anorexia, Bulimia, and binge-eating
What are the 3 eating disorders?
What is the compulsion to lose weight, coupled with certainty about being fat despite being 15% or more underweight?
What is the compulsion to binge, eating large amounts fast, then purge by losing the food through vomiting, laxatives, and extreme exercise?
What is the compulsion to binge, followed by guilt and depression?
Personality Disorders
What is an enduring patterns of social and other behavior that impair social functioning?
Anxious, Eccentric/odd, and Dramatic
What is the 3 clusters of personality disorders?
What does it mean to be ruled by fear of social rejection?
What does it mean to have a flat affect or no social attachments?
What does it mean to be attention-seeking narcissistic, self-centered; antisocial, amoral?
Antisocial Personality Disorder
What refers to acting impulsively or fearlessly without regard for others’ needs and feelings?
Antisocial Personality Disorder
What type of disorder has this diagnostic criteria: Deceitfulness, aggressiveness, lack of remorse, irritability, and irresponsibly regarding jobs, family, and money?
True or False: People with Antisocial Personality Disorder are normally criminals
What refers to how mental disorders are treated, with the help of the knowledge base of psychology?
Old Way
Is this the old way of treating mental illness or the new way: Beating bad spirits out of people, bleeding people out, and letting the spirits out through holes drilled into the skull?
What is an interactive experience with a trained professional, working on understanding and changing behavior, thinking, relationships, and emotions?
Biomedical Therapy
What is the use of medications and other procedures acting directly on the body to reduce the symptoms of mental disorders?
Eclectic Approach
What approach uses techniques from various forms of therapy to fit the client’s problems, strengths, and preferences?
What type of psychology uses psychodynamic therapy?
What type of psychology uses client-centered therapy?
What type of psychology uses therapy using conditioning?
What type of psychology uses therapy using changing thoughts?
Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis
Who are the cognitive psychologists?
B.F. Skinner and Ivan Pavlov
Who are the behavior psychologists?
What refers to a set of techniques for releasing the tension of repression and resolving unconscious inner conflicts?
Free Association and Interpretation
What two techniques are used in psychoanalysis psychology?
Free Association
What is it called when the patient speaks freely about
What is it called when the therapists suggests unconscious meaning and underlying wishes to help the client gain insight and release tension?
Resistance, dreams, and transference
What are the 3 problems with interpretation?
What type of psychology emphasizes the human potential for growth, self-actualization, and personal fulfillment?
Humanistic therapy
What attempts to support personal growth by helping people gain self-awareness and self-acceptance?
Client-centered therapy
What is Carl Roger’s name for his style of humanistic therapy?
Behavior therapy
What type of therapy uses the principles of learning, especially classical and operant conditioning, to help reduce unwanted responses?
What refers to linking new, positive responses to previously aversion stimuli?
Exposure Therapy
What is it called to expose a feared situation to reverse the reinforcement by waiting for anxiety to subside during the exposure called?
Systematic Desensitization
What begins with a tiny reminder of the feared situation, that keeps increasing the exposure intensity as the person learns to tolerate the previous level?
Virtual Reality Therapy
What involves exposure to simulations, such as flying or snakes?
Systematic Desensitization and Virtual Reality Therapy
What are two types of exposure therapy?
Operant Conditioning
What refers to the shaping of chosen behavior in response to the consequences of the behavior?
Behavior Modification
What refers of shaping a client’s chosen behavior to look more like a desired behavior, by making sure that desired behaviors are rewarded and problematic behaviors are unrewarded or punished?
Applied behavioral analysis
What is used with nonverbal children with autism spectrum disorder. It rewards behaviors such as sitting with someone or making eye contact, and sometimes punishes self-harming behaviors?
Token Economy
What uses coins, stars, or other indirect rewards as “tokens” that can be collected and traded later for real rewards?
Cognitive Therapy
What helps people alter the negative thinking that worsens depression and anxiety?
Albert Ellis
Who came up with rational-emotive behavior therapy?
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy
What is challenging irrational beliefs and assumptions?
Aaron Beck
Who came up with cognitive therapy for depression?
Cognitive Therapy for Depression
What is correcting cognitive distortions?
Donald Meichenbaum
Who came up with stress inoculation training?
Stress Inoculation Training
What is practicing healthier thinking before facing a stressor, disappointment, or frustration?
Albert Ellis
Who showed how depression is worsened by irrational beliefs? These include depressing assumptions about the world.
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy
What helps people notice that they are operating on self-defeating assumptions and that they reward themselves for replacing these assumptions with realistic beliefs?
Aaron Beck
Who helped people see how their depression was worsened by errors in thinking such as catastrophizing ( interpreting current events as signs of the worst possible outcome)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
What works to change both cognition and behaviors that are part of a mental health disorder?
Family therapy, group therapy, and self-help groups
What are three types of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy?
Cognitive and Psychodynamic
What two types of therapy help with depression?
Cognitive, Psychodynamic, and Exposure
What three types of therapy help with anxiety?
Exposure and Behavior
What are two types of therapy that help with phobias?
What type of therapy helps with bedwetting?
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing
What is it called then a therapist attempts to unlock and reprocess previous frozen traumatic memories by waving a finger or light in front of the patients eyes in order to integrate past and present and left and right hemispheres?
Biomedical Therapies
What refers to physically changing the brain’s functioning by altering its chemistry with medications, or affecting its circuitry with electrical or magnetic impulses or surgery
What refers to the study of drug effects on behavior, mood, and the mind?
Anipsychotic, Antianxiety, Antidepressant, Mood Stabilizers, and ADHD Stimulants
What are five types of medications?
Which medication reduces the symptoms of schizophrenia, especially “positive” symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions; They do this by blocking dopamine receptors?
Which medication temporarily reduces worried thinking and physical agitation and might permanently erase traumatic associations; They do this by slowing nervous system activity in the body and the brain?
Which medication improves mood and control over depressing and anxious thoughts; They do this by increasing levels of serotonin at synapses by inhibiting reuptake and possible neurogenesis?
Which medication has these side effects: Obesity, diabetes, and movement problems ( sluggishness, twitching, or eventually tardive dyskinesia– odd facial/ tongue and body movements)
Which medication has these side effects: Slowed thinking, reduced learning, dependence, and withdrawl
Which medication has these side effects: Dry mouth, constipation, and reduced sexual desire and/or response
Mood Stabilizers
What medications reduces the “highs” of mania as well as reduce the depressive “lows”; They do this by under investigation?
ADHD Stimulants
What medication helps control impulses and reduce distractibility and the need for stimulation including fidgeting; They do this by blocking reuptake of dopamine from synapes
Mood Stabilizers
What medication has these side effects: Various; blood levels must be monitored
ADHD Stimulants
What medication has these side effects: Decreased appetite
Electroconvulsive Therapy
What type of therapy induces a mild seizure that disrupts severe depression for some people?
Deep Brain Stimulation
What type of therapy uses implanted electrodes?
What destroys the connections between the frontal lobes and the rest of the brain and decreases depression, but also destroys initiative, judgement, ad cognition?
What might work by disrupting problematic neural networks involved with aggression or obsessive-compulsive disorder?
Microsurgery and Lobotomy
What are two types of Psychosurgery?