chapter 12 world history zach

The sea allowed Japan to pick and choose which foreign customs and practices they would like to partake in. However it was their option and these practices were not forced upon them.
How did the sea help Japan preserve its identity?
They were Japan’s first and only dynasty. Their beliefs that emperors were gods descended throughout the following ages. The emperors were then revered.
How did the Yamato clan influence future Japanese government?
Japan sent nobles to negotiate, trade, and study in China. There they could study without consequence and get a better understanding of Chinese culture.
How did Japan seek out Chinese influences?
Women influenced culture at the Heian court by producing many works of Japanese literature. These works were later revered as some of Japan’s many accomplishments.
How did women influence culture at the Heian Court?
Bushido is the way of the warrior. The codes emphasized honor, loyalty, and bravery to one’s lord.
What was bushido and why was it important?
By maintaining forms of a feudal society and imposing central government to control all of Japan.
How did the Tokugawas set up centralized Feudalism?
The two were similar because they both reflected the need to seek loyalty and devotion to duty. Bushido focused on honor, loyalty, and bravery to one’s lord. While Zen Buddhism focused on self-reliance and meditation.
How was Zen Buddhism similar to bushido?
Puppet plays, known as Bunraku plays and woodblock prints catered to the middle class.
What new art forms catered to the growing middle class?
Southeast Asia was strategically important because there was a seaborne trade between China and India. This trade had to pass through two straits which were very rich trade routes.
How did geography make Southeast Asia strategically important?
When India increased contact with Southeast Asia, trade, religion, writing, law, government, art, architecture, and farming thrived. Wealth and individual prosperity increased through contact.
What changes occurred as India increased contact with Southeast Asia?
Indians influenced the kingdoms by introducing Buddhism. The Pagan kingdom became a major Buddhist center along with the Khmer Empire. The Srivijaya empire adapted to Hinduism and Buddhism.
How did India influence the Pagan Kingdom, the Khmer empire and Srivijaya empire?
Chinese brought Confucian ideas, the civil service system, and a government bureaucracy to the Vietnamese.
How did China influence Vietnam?
Situated in between China and Japan, the Chinese had great influence in Korea. The Koreans adapted to many Chinese traditions seeing as they were located so close to one another.
How did the relative location of the Korean peninsula influence the development of Korean civilization?
The Koryo dynasty mastered the use of woodblock printing, they invented a movable metal type, and the creating of celadon.
What were the achievements of the Koryo dynasty?
Korea preserved its identity by inventing hangul, a Korean phonetic alphabet. The learning of this raised the literacy rate greatly.
How did Korea preserve its own identity under the Choson dynasty?
It is between China and Japan, so it acts like a bridge between the three countries. If a country wanted to pass their beliefs, start a war, or trade they could do it through Korea. It would be a strategic way to attack another country without having to use the sea.
Why might Korea’s location be considered strategic to other countries?
They modified the woodblock printing system as well as the technique for making celadon.
Give two examples of how Koreans adapted or modified Chinees ideas under the Silla or Koryo dynasty?
They would celebrate it because it raised the literacy rate in Korea which led to their advancement in the world.
Today, Hangul Day is a holiday in South Korea. Why do you think Koreans celebrate the creation of their alphabet?
The Mongols ruled by toleration and justice. They began to respect all religious beliefs . They were not oppressive rulers after their conquest was over.
How did the Mongol Empire change once conquest was over?
At first, he only allowed Mongols to serve in the military and high government positions. Ruled through a mix or Chinese and foreign customs.
How did Kublai Khan organize Mondol rule in China?
The restored a previous style by placing the civil service system and Confucian learning in act once again.
How did Ming rulers restore a previous style of Chinese Government?
Zheng He died, which led the Chinese to forbid the building and sailing of ships. All of this limited China’s involvement with the rest of the world limiting their “sense of power”
What occurred in 1435 that changed China’s relationship with the rest of the world?
By conquering the Silk Road, China was in charge of a very powerful trade route that increased food, tools, inventions, and ideas throughout different cultures.
How did the Mongol conquests promote trade and cultural exchanges?
Order and peace emerged from the mongols conquering China. The expulsion of the Mongols led to a new and improved dynasty, the Ming. The rise of the Ming dynasty reinforced China’s power through the sailing of Chinese fleets.
Describe one effect of each of the following on China a) the Mongol Invasion b) the expulsion of the mongols c)the rise of the Ming dynasty.
The Ming emperors tried to restore Chinese culture by placing the civil service system in action one again along with Confucian learning..
How did the Ming emperors try to restore Chinese culture?
The Tang reunified China by defeating Tibet, Vietnam, and Korea. They set up a tributary system on these countries. The Tang established land reform as well.
How did the Tang dynasty reunify China?
They continued their prosperity by moving south of the Huang River. There they ruled for another 150 years.
How was the Song dynasty able to continue its prosperity despite threats from the north?
Through the gentry and peasant classes. The gentry were the wealth landowning class that spent their lives devoted to the study of Confucianism and the peasantry class were the lower income persons that wanted to rid themselves of the government.
How did most Chinese people live?
They addressed, fantasy, romance, philosophy, religion, history, adventure, Chinese architecture, balance, harmony, and women. These were incorporated throughout some type of art or literature
What themes did Tang and Song arts and literature address?
It benefited China by bringing in revenue, peasants being given their own land, and expansion of government
In what ways did the rise of the Tang dynasty unify and benefit China?
It was significant because it connected the Huang River to the Chang River. Through this connection food grown in the south could be shipped to the north. Mass production of grain.
What was the significance of the Grand Canal to the Song dynasty?
The classes were divided by the gentry and the peasantry. The gentry spent their life studying Confucian teachings and consisted of the wealthy landowning class. The peasantry traded amongst themselves.
Describe the social structure of China under the Tang and Song dynasties. How did the social structure reflect Confucian traditions?
Balance and Harmony
What ideas and traditions shaped Chinese paintings?
The three came to Southeast Asia through sea traders. Even though they converted to Buddhism, they still represented the three- nature spirits, Buddhism, Hinduism- through art and images of snakes and milk
Explain the intersection of Hinduism, Buddhism, and the worship of Khmer nature spirits in the region.
-China
-Emperor Wudi put monopolies on salt and iron
-Emperor teaching government officials that greed and power is right
– Emperor going against Confucian beliefs
– not leading by example
-Legalism rather than Confucianism
Salt Debate- key points
– Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty
– Emperor speaking to officials on the importance of individual opinion
– do not agree for the sake of agreeing
-put people above yourself
– rule by example and correct where you believe there should be corrections
Art of Government- key points
– piece of artwork illustrating daily life during Song dynasty
-shows urbanization, commercialism, and the commercial revolution
-illustrates how classes were able to trade and thrive after the mass rice production
Quingming Scroll- key points
They were influenced by China
Who were the Japanese people influenced by?
It is located on an archipelago & consists of 4 main islands
Where is Japan located?
It lies in the Ring of Fire, a chain of volcanoes, & has been subject to terrible tsunamis
Where does Japan lie?
The Yamato clan, they claimed descent from the sun goddess
What clan formed Japan’s 1st & only dynasty?
Shinto, worship of the forces of nature
What was the traditional Japanese religion?
Korean
What language is Japanese related to?
Korean missionaries introduced Buddhism to Japan
What happened in the 500s?
Nobles, students, & traders
Who visited the Tang court in China?
They revised it & added Kana, which are symbols representing syllables
What did the Japanese do to the Chinese writing system?
The Tale of Genji during the Heian period by Lady Muraski
What was the World’s first full-length novel called?
The emperor was the head, but really he was powerless
Who was the head of the feudal society of Japan?
The Shogun, or supreme military commander
Who had the real power?
Minamoto Yoritomo
Who was appointed shogun in 1192?
Distributed land to lords, called daimyo, who agreed to support him with their armies
What did the shogun do?
They granted land to lesser warriors called samurai
What did the daimyo do in return?
They developed a code of values, known as bushido
What did the samurai do?
It emphasized honor, bravery, & loyalty to one’s lord
What did the bushido code emphasize?
Kublai Khan tried to invade Japan, but typhoons wrecked the Mongol ships during both invasions
What happened between 1274 &1281?
Toyotomi Hideyoshi had brought most of Japan under his control
What happened by 1590?
Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated his rivals to become master of Japan. He ruled until 1868
What happened in 1600?
They were great scholars, yet they stressed the importance of reaching a moment of “non-knowing”
What were Zen monks?
The tea ceremony
What reflects the Zen value of peace?
They created an orderly society & a strong central government
What did the Kugawa rulers do?
They believed that people could seek enlightenment through meditation.
What did the Zen Buddhists believe?
Silla dynasty
Unites Korea, arts flourish, buddhism grows, capital Kyongju was the city of gold.
Koryo dynasty
Replaced the Silla Dynasty in Korea capital was Songak metal type print led to mass productionn of books also produced celadon
celadon
Korean ceramic pottery with a thin blue or green glaze.
Choson (yi) dynasty
Founded by a Korean Mongol general, this dynasty would last for over 500 years. It is one of the longest lasting dynasties in world history.
King sejong
1443, Korea’s most celebrated ruler decided to replace the complex Chinese system of writing. Developed hangul which was more how speaking sounds but using symbols.
hangul
Korean alphabet that uses 14 consanatns and 10 vowels for folktales and popular literatre
literacy rate
Percentage of people who can read and write
evolve
undergo development or evolution
penisula
land surrounded by water on three sides
Mongols
Originally a group of nomads from the steppes of Central Asia near the Gobi Desert
Steppe
Sparse, dry, treeless grassland
Ming Dynasty
Chinese dynasty in which Chinese rule was restored; held power from 1368 to 1644
Genghis Khan
Meaning universal leader, this leader was able to unite all of the Mongols in the early 1200’s
Chinese and Turkish military experts
From who did Khan’s troops learn how to take over walled cities using cannons?
True
Khan died before he could completely take over China, but descendants conquered area of the Chinese coast and the Russia and the Middle East true or false
Pax Mongolica
Used to describe the hundred years of peace and prosperity the Mongols brought to Eurasia
Kublai Khan
Grandson of Genghis Khan, defeated the last song emperor in 1279
Tibet, China and Korea
What countries did he rule from the capital, Khanbaliq?
1295
Kublai Khan dies and the Yuan dynasty begins to decline
Zhu Yuanzhang
This leader over throws the Mongols (the Yuan dynasty) and unites theChinese people in 1368
Ming Dynasty
This new dynasty is another word for brilliant
The board of censors, Confucian learning, and the civil-service exam
These 3 things are restored under the Ming Dynasty to keep the gov’t from becoming corrupt
100 million people
The population grows to ___ people under the Ming Dynasty
Zheng He
This admiral and diplomat explores the waters of Southeast Asia, Africa and the Middle East between 1405 and 1433
Nanjing
This city becomes the center of industry under the Ming Dynasty
Landscape painting
The Ming begin a BLANK type of painting on their blue white porcelain vases sought after today
The water margin
Ming writers start to write fictional novels such as BLANK and some of the world’s first detective stories
1644 AD
After years of stable rule, the Ming finally are replaced by the Qing Dynasty in BLANK
tang dynasty
chinese dynasty from 618-907
tang taizong
ruler in the 600’s he became ruler after his father and was known as a brilliant general government reformer and historian he would become chinas most admired emperor
tributary states
an independent state that has to acknowledge the supremacy of another state and pay tribute to its ruler
land reform
breakup of large agricultural holdings for redistribution among peasants
song dynasty
chinese dynasty from 960-1279 known for its artistic achievements
gentry
wealthy landowning class
dowry
in some societies payment from a brides family to the groom and his family
payment a woman brings to the marriage
pagoda
multi-storied buddhist temples with eaves that curve up at the corners
levels of chinese society
the highest level of chinese society is emperor next were the scholar officials most came from the gentries after this were the peasants merchants had the lowest status
expansion of economy under song
improved farming methods and open border policies new type of faster growing rice which allowed them to grow two crops a year which created surpluses and allowed more people to pursue commerce
the role of the grand canal
linked the Huang River to the Chang River which allowed thousands of tons of grain to be shipped to norther china during the song dynasty
land reform policy, how did this strengthen the central government
the policy weakened the power of large land owners and also increased government revenues since the peasants who farmed their own lands were also able to pay taxes
the status of women during song times; how was this reinforced
women had a higher status in the song times that in later times women ran family affairs but men were still valued more than women
they also allowed foot binding which was a symbol of nobility and beauty despite the pain it caused
Chinese writing: differences between the various poets
Li Bo wrote about harmony with nature and lamenting the passage of time while Du Fu described the horrors of war and condemned the lavishes of the court Li Quingzhao wrote about the experiences of women when loved ones went off to war
Wu Zhao
she was the only woman to rule China and help guide China through one of its most brilliant periods
Li Yuan
he was the first Tang emperor and was a general under the sui dynasty
Zhao Kuangyin
he was a scholar and general and reunited most of China founding the song dynasty
Li Bo
probably the greatest Tang poet who write about 2000 poems
Sui Wendi
the emperor of the Sui dynasty who reunited the north and the south