Chapter 12 US History Study Guide

Black Codes
Laws designed to keep freedmen in slave-like conditions
Ku Klux Clan
initial goal was to play practical jokes on former slaves. a secret organization of White Protestant Americans, mainly in the South, who use violence against Black people, Jewish people, and other minority groups.
Fourteenth Amendment
(June 1866) – citizenship to all naturally born in US (cemented Civil Rights Bill into Constitution)
Reconstruction Acts of 1867
(March 1867) – divided the South into five military zones
Fifteenth Amendment
(March 1870) – voting rights to all male citizens regardless of race
scoundrel & traitor to the South (James Longstreet is the most famous)
northern Republicans who came South to take part in Reconstruction
labor system where the freedmen worked for a share of the crop rather than wages
Enforcement Acts of 1870
set heavy penalties for those interfering with Reconstruction (KKK) by enforcing the 15th Amendment
Hiram Revels
African American who took the Senate seat held by Jefferson Davis
Three Restrictions brought by Black Codes
1. Forbade them from owning property
2. Not allowed to sit on a jury
3. Not allowed to own guns
4. Had curfews (once the sun went down)
Identify 3 goals of the Ku Klux Klan
1. To keep slaves from getting political rights
2. To drive slaves out of the South (saw them as a threat)
3. To keep Republicans in the North from gaining political power in the South
Two advantages & disadvantages of the sharecropping system
1. Gave freedmen a place to work
2. Gave landowners the labor force needed
1. Most sharecroppers never got out of debt
2. Kept the South tied to an agricultural society.
13th Amendment
(January 1st, 1865) – abolished slavery
Freedmen’s Bureau
Established by Congress on March 3, 1865
Provided food and medical care,
Resettlement of freed blacks,
Managed abandoned and confiscated property (850,000 acres given to free blacks),
Established schools (over 1,000 built, training schools, several black colleges)
Proclamation of Amnesty
Lincoln offered forgiveness to Southern citizens who pledge loyalty to the Union/support for the Emancipation
Ten Percent Plan
a state could be reinstated into the Union when 10% of its legal voters took the oath of allegiance to the U.S.
Wade-Davis Bill
required majority of state’s white citizens to pledge loyalty before elections could be held
Radical Republicans
a wing of the Republican Party organized around an uncompromising opposition to slavery before and during the Civil War and a vigorous campaign to secure rights for freed slaves during Reconstruction.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
granted citizenship and the same rights enjoyed by white citizens to all male persons in the United States “without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude.”
the enforced separation of different racial groups in a country, community, or establishment.
a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.
Southern Homestead Act
a United States federal law enacted to break a cycle of debt during the Reconstruction following the American Civil War. Prior to this act, blacks and whites alike were having trouble buying land.
Tenant farming
an agricultural production system in which landowners contribute their land and often a measure of operating capital and management; while tenant farmers contribute their labor along with at times varying amounts of capital and management.
sought to overthrow the Radical Republican coalition of Freedmen, carpetbaggers and Scalawags. They were the southern wing of the Bourbon Democrats, the conservative, pro-business wing of the Democratic Party.
Compromise of 1877
Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) allowed to become president, Republicans agree to withdraw from the South
Tenure of Office Act
intended to restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate. The law was enacted on March 3, 1867, over the veto of President Andrew Johnson.
Thaddeus Stevens
most famous Radical Republican. Created that party along with Charles Sumner
Abraham Lincoln
assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater on April 15, 1865
John Wilkes Booth
Assassinated Abraham Lincoln on April 15, 1865 at Ford’s Theater
Andrew Johnson
Took over as president after Lincoln’s assassination.
James Longstreet
most famous of the Scalawags (traitors to the South)
Nathan Bedford Forest
creator of the Ku Klux Klan
5 major problems faced after Civil War
Problems in the South:
1.The land was in ruins
2.Confederate money was worthless
3.Banks were runied
4.No law or authority
5.The souths transportation system was in complete disorder.
6.Loss of enslaved workers,worth two billion dollars.
7.Government at all levels, had dissapeared
Main objectives of 13-15th Amendments
13th: abolished slavery
14th: citizenship to all naturally born in US
15th: voting rights to all male citizens regardless of race
4 positive changes that Republican Reconstruction brought to South
1. Created first public school system in the South
2. Built many hospitals and orphanages
3. eliminated property requirements for voting
4. built thousands of miles of new railroads
5. rebuilt many destroyed buildings and bridges
Ulysses S. Grant
withheld invitation to Ford’s Theater to accompany Lincoln and his wife at the play
Frederick Douglas
former slave who served as a close advisor to President Johnson during Reconstruction in the South
Samuel Tilden
Lost to Rutherford B. Hayes in the disputed election of 1876
Rutherford B. Hayes
Won disputed election in 1876
David Duke
a famous grand wizard of the Ku Klux Klan
Three reasons why Reconstruction failed
1. Compromise of 1877 took all Republicans and Union soldiers out of the South, ending Reconstruction.
2. Resentment from Southerners towards Northern Republicans and/or Carpetbaggers
3. The president and Congress couldn’t mediate on a plan for Reconstruction, both sides argued and issued their own plans
4. Groups like the KKK were made to derail/undermine Reconstruction.

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