Chapter 12 Test Review World History

Origin of feudalism
After the fall of Charlemagne’s empire, disorder and uncertainty plagued western Europe so people turned to powerful landholders who, in exchange for for certain services, would provide that security;.
feudalism
it was a way of life based upon the ownership and use of land.
fief
feudal system of the Middle Ages centered around him
lord
a piece of land held by one man
vassal
used land a lord permitted him to
Feudal system rankings
king-fief-lord-vassal
king
At the top of the feudal system in each western European kingdom
crown land
land of the king that he kept for personal use
knights
heavily armed warriors, wearing full body armor and mounted on horses
Chivalry
the code of conduct for the nobility and the knights
Training for knighthood
Boys started at age 7 as a servant in the service of a lord at age 21 squire would become a knight
heraldry
certain colorful and unique symbols, emblems, and designs displayed on armor, shields, and banners.
coat of arms
a family’s distinct display of heraldry
castles
meaning military camp. With invasions and warfare so prevalent, nobles built heavily fortified dwellings
joust
two knights fought to knock each other off their horses
tournaments
groups of knights fought a mock battle that lasted an entire day and ranged over the whole countryside.
falconry
favorite kind of hunting/ hunted falcons
minstrels
musicians who played simple stringed instruments and sang ballads of love and war.
games of the medival times
Vast majority of people in Europe did not live in castles and had no time or energy for games
manors
estates that belonged to the nobles, ranging in size from a few hundred to several thousand acres.
serfs
peasants lived in villages of 10 to 50 families located near the center of the manor
Demesne
serfs worked here about two to three days a week
Truce of God
the church forbade fighting from Friday through Sunday of each week
Peace of God
in which the priests denied the sacraments to persons who robbed churches, took a serfs property, or killed noncombatants during battles
pilgrimages
considered most valuable for earning one’s salvation was a visit to the Holy Land, especially the Christian sites around Jerusalem.
Pope Urban II
1095 he responded to the Byzantine Empire by proclaiming the beginning of the crusades.
Crusades
stated purpose of capturing the Holy Land from the Muslims and holding it for Christendom
Saracens
Muslims that Europe battled in the crusades
Peasants Crusade
simple farmers began to revolt but with the Turks being experienced warriors, destroyed the Europeans.
First Crusade
1096-1099/ Within a year they captured the Asia Minor for the Byzantine Empire and took Jerusalem in 1099.
Four little kingdoms
`Kingdom of Jerusalem, Country of Tripoli, Principality of Antioch, and the Country of Edessa
Second Crusade
responded after the Muslims took the Country of Edessa (1147-1149)
Bernard of Clairvaux
called on upon the pope to preach of the need for Europeans to take up the cross again
Louis VII and Conrad III
persuaded by the preaching of Bernard and were the two of Europe’s most powerful monarchs of the day and lead the crusade
Saladin
Muslim leader and renowned sultan of Egypt
Third Crusade
Happened after the fall of Jerusalem accomplished only the agreement of the European control of the Holy Land(1189-1192)
Richard I
English king that joined his French and German counterparts to lead what is remembered as the “Crusade of Kings”
Frederick Barbarossa
German king that drowned in Asia minor, prompting most of his soldiers to return home
Philip Augustus
French king that led his men back to Europe after a minor victory for the crusaders at the seaport of Acre on the coast of Palestine
Richard I nickname
Coeur de Lion which means Lion-Hearted was given to him for his heroic exploits in Palestine.
Fourth Crusade
(1202-1204) never reached the Holy Land but instead plundered Constantinople, a city of Christendom
Children’s Crusades
occurred in 1212 when fanatical preaching instigated about 30,000 French children to march on the Holy Land
burgs
new towns that sprang up beside fortresses
burghers
Those living in these new communities
middle class
the class between the nobility and the peasants was given rise thanks to burgs
trade fairs
brought together merchants from many lands
guilds
an early form of trade unionism, consisted of voluntary associations among merchants, artisans, and craftsmen
Hanseatic League
a confederation of northern German towns formed during the 13th century and eventually embracing some 85 cities.
Flanders
a low -lying region located in western Belgium, just across the English Channel from the British Isles.
Medici
leading banking family who ruled Florence, Italy and influenced European politics and economics from the 1300s until the 1700s.
Black Death, Positive effects for the Crusade, Trade routes
essay questions
Romanesque
Archetectual style used thick, massive walls and small windows with rounded arches.
Gothic
Archeticture had tall walls with many pointed windows
Notre Dame
Gothic archecticure used here
universities
growing need for men with special training in such professions as law and medicine led to the founding of these
Salerno
first medieval university was center for the study of medicine
Oxford
Where John Wycliffe was an official
Paris
gained great prestige with programs in theology, law, medicine, and philoosophy
Prague
Oldest German university
Medival curriculum was cut into two parts
trivium- consisting of grammer, rhetoric and logic
quarivium- composed of arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy
Scholasticism
an attempt to synthesize Greek philosophy with Romanism
Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham
Two great scholastics
Thomas Aquinas- known as “Dumb Ox” speaked slowly but had a brilliant mind
William of Ockham- brilliant mind at Oxford
Thomism
denied the totality of man’s sinful nature and his dependence upon God for everything
John Wycliffe
The most outstanding scholar at Oxford university during the 14th century/ began the first translation of the Bible into English
Lollards
Followers of John Wycliffe were called this
John Wycliffe is known as
“Morning Star of the Reformation
Bohemia
Where John Huss saw the light
Gerhard Groote
a Dutch contemporeary of John Wycliffe who organized the Brethren of the Common Life
Dante
Divine Comedy
Geoffrey Chaucer
The Canterburg Tales
Italian Renaissance
Enthusiam for classical Greek and Latin lituratue sprang up in Itlay
Humanities
subjects such as history, grammar, rhetoric, and poetry
Pretrarch
“Father of Humanism”‘
Boccaccio
First great writer of prose in a modern language
Niccolo Machiavelli
Wrote The Prince
patrons
people who use their own money to support the arts
Giotto
Changed the art of painting in the 14th century
moasaccio and Botticelli
followed Giotto’s footsteps to reach new heights in realistic painting
Ghiberti, Donatello, Verrocchio
captured the likeness of reality in stone and metal
Leonardo da Vinci
Personified the era’s new ideal of man Renaissance man/ painted Mona Lisa and Last Supper
Raphel
painted Sistine Madonna and The School of Athens
Michelangelo
the greatest Italian lyric poet of the 16th century/ Sistine Chapel, David and Moses
Johann Gutenburg
invented the movable-type printing press about 1440.
Gutenburg Bible
1456, first Gutenberg bible was published