Chapter 12 Study Guide

Thermometer
Device that measure temperature
Conduction
The transfer of kinetic energy when particles collide
Second Law of Thermodynamics
States that natural processes go in a direction that maintain or increase the universe’s total entropy
Kinetic-molecular theory
States that matter is made up of particles that are always in motion
Heat engine
Device that continuously converts thermal energy to mechanical energy
Melting point
Temperature at which a substance changes from solid to liquid
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Absolute zero
Lowest possible temperature
Calorimeter
Device that measures changes in thermal energy
Radiation
Transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
Specific heat
Amount of energy that must be added to raise the temperature of a unit mass one unit
Kelvin
Unit of temperature on the Kelvin scale
Heat of fusion
Amount of energy needed to melt 1 kg of substance
First Law of Thermodynamics
States that the total increase in thermal energy of a system is the sum of the work done on it and the heat added to it
Entropy
Disorder of a system
Thermodynamics
Study of heat
Thermal energy
Overall energy of motion of the particles that make up the object
Heat of vaporization
Amount of thermal energy needed to change 1 kg of liquid to a gas