Chapter 11 Vocabulary terms AP gov’t

ACLU
The american civil liberties union, an organization that acts to protect the constitutional rights of all citizens.
Amicus Curaie Breifs
A brief filed by a party not directly involved in the litigation but with an interest in the outcome of the case. Latin meaning “friend of the court brief”.
“Beltway Bandits”
A large not profit firms with trade representatives or lobbyists in washington who win federal grants and contracts.
Bundling
A tactic of PACs whereby they collect contributions from like minded individuals and present them to a candidate or political party as a bundle thus increasing their influence.
Client Politics
The politics of policy-making in which some small group receives the benefits of the policy and the public at large bears the costs.
Closed shop
A company with a labor agreement wherby union membership is a condition of employment
Collective good
something enjoyed by all members of a society or community
Cue
A signal that tells a politician what values are at stake in an issue and how that issue fits into his/her political beliefs
Direct Mail
a mailing from an intrest group focused at a specialized audience whose prupose is both to raise money and mobolize supporters
Direct Technique
Direct interaction with government officals that is used by interest groups to further their goals
“Dirty Dozen”
A list complied by an enviormental interest group of those legislators who voted most frequently against its measures.
Economic interest group
Interest groups that work to gain economic benefits for their members.
Electioneering
Campaigning for a candidate, political party or issue in an election.
Entrepreneurial politics
Policies benefiting a society as a whole or some large part that impose a substantial cost on some small identifiable segment of society
Faction
madisons term for interest groups and political parties
Federal register
this official document published every weekday lists new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies
Free rider
a person who does not join and interest group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefits of the influence the group achieves.
Grassroots support
Backing for a public policy that arises or is created broad public opinion
Gridlock
A complete lack of movement or progress in the passage of legislation, typically resulting from conflicts between political parties or between congress and the presdient
Ideological interest group
an organization that attracts members by appealing to their interests on a coherent set of usually controversial principles.
Incentive
something of value offered by a mass membership of organizations
Incumbent
a person who hold political office
Indirect technique
Used by interest groups to influence government officals and their decisions.
Insider strategy
Lobbyists working closely with a few key members of congress, meeting them privatelu to exchange information and sometimes favors
Institutional interests
individuals or organizations representing other organizations
Interest group
an organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy
Interest group pluralism
Theory that policy is made through competition among interest groups who are trying to influence government officals
Iron triangle
3 way alliance between political organizations or agents
Labor movement
the organization of the working class groups to further their economic and political interests
Litigation
pursuing a case or claim through the judicial process.

legal action

Lobbying
Efforts by indivuals or organizations to pass, defeat, change, or influence the crafting of laws and decisions
Lobbyist
A person who engages in lobbying
Material Incentive
An economic motivation for doing something.
membership interests
a type of interest group that represents the interests of its members
Movement
a large body of people in a common issue , idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action on that issue.
nonpartisan interest group
not affiliated with a political party
Open shop
a compaqny with a labor agreement whereby union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment
Outsider strategy
The plan increasingly used by lobbyist with the advent of modern technology and employing grassroots lobbying
Overlapping membership
the theory that an interest groups power can be diluted by the multiple affiliations of its members.
PAC
Political Action Committees; an organization formed to collect money and provide financial support for political candidates
LEGALLY ENTITLED
Paycheck protection
laws that required unions to give its members a chance to opt out of money taken from their paycheck which is used for political activities.
Pluralism
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
Pluralistic Political system
policy making process encompasses the effective competition of interest groups.
Pressure system
a theory of american politics in which organized special intrest groups dominate government.
Private Interest groups
an interest group working in the interests of a small group of people, as opposed to a public interest group
Professional interest group
a type of private interest group that represents the interest of professionals
Public employees Interest group
a type of private interest group that works to further the interests of government employees.
Public Interest
To benefit members of an entire community
Public interest group
A type of interest group that works on issues affecting broad segments of the population.
Public interest lobby
An interest group whose efforts significantly benefit nonmembers.
Purpose incentive
A motivation that is dependent on ethical beliefs, values, or ideological principles. an incentive to join a mass membership organization based upon the appeal of the groups goals.
Ratings
an evaluation supplied by some interest groups that ranks legislators on their degree of support for a particular cause, such as unions or the environmental.
Revolving door
the employment cycle in which individuals work, in turn for governmental agencies regulating interests and then for the interest groups or businesse with the same policy concern
Section 501 groups
groups
section 527 groups
a non profit organization formed under section 527 of the internal revenue code which grants tax-exempt status to political committees at the national, state, and local levels.
Selective incentive
Material benefits that are available to members of an interest group.
single issue group
an interest group concerned with a single issue such as the NRA
social movement
a widely shared demand for change in some aspect of the social ot political order
soft money
political contributions made in such a way as to avoid the United States regulations for federal election campaigns (as by contributions to a political action committee)
solidary incentive
Motivation based on shared associations, hobbies or interests.
subsidy
financial aid that the government provides to indivduals , groups, business or other levels of government
Tax exempt public charity
an organization formed under the irs code which grants the organization tax exempt status so long as the group does not get involved in electioneering activity.